ADH and PDC genes involved in tannins coagulation leading to natural de-astringency in Chinese pollination constant and non-astringency persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)
- 351 Downloads
Pollination constant non-astringency (PCNA)-type persimmons are the most desirable cultivar because the fruit loses astringency naturally and does not require any treatments for edibility. The mechanism of natural astringency loss in Chinese PCNA (C-PCNA)-type persimmon is probably related to the coagulation of soluble tannins into insoluble tannins, which is quite different from that in the Japanese PCNA (J-PCNA) type. In this work, three types of persimmon cultivars were sampled: ‘Luotian-tianshi’ (C-PCNA), ‘Maekawa-jirou’ (J-PCNA), and ‘Mopanshi’ (pollination constant astringent (PCA)) were sampled. Three DkADH and four DkPDC genes were isolated from C-PCNA plants. Three candidate genes for soluble tannins coagulation identified in C-PCNA fruit (DkADH1, DkPDC1, and DkPDC2) were characterized through combined analysis of spatiotemporal expression patterns and tannin and acetaldehyde contents during fruit development. Transient over-expression in persimmon leaves showed that DkADH1 and DkPDC2 led to a significant decrease in the levels of soluble tannins in infiltrated leaves. These results indicated that DkADH and DkPDC genes should be considered key genes for natural astringency loss in C-PCNA types.
KeywordsPersimmon ADH PDC Tannin coagulation De-astringency C-PCNA
This research was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31171929) and the Special Scientific Research Fund of the Agricultural Public Welfare Profession of China (201203047). We are grateful to Dr. Zhibiao Ye (College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China) for proving the plant binary vector.
Compliance with ethical standards
Data archiving statement
The cDNA sequences of three ADH and four PDC genes (accession no. KT867633 to KT867639) have been submitted to GenBank.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Eaks IL (1967) Ripening and astringency removal in persimmon fruits. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 91:868–875Google Scholar
- Ikegami A, Yonemori K, Sugiura A, Sato A, Yamada M (2004) Segregation of Astringency in F1 progenies derived from crosses between pollination-constant, nonastringent persimmon cultivars. HortSci 39:371–374Google Scholar
- Ikegami A, Sato A, Yamada M, Kitajima A, Yonemori K (2005) Expression of genes involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis during fruit development in a Chinese pollination-constant, nonastringent (PCNA) persimmon, ‘Luo Tian Tian Shi’. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 130:830–835Google Scholar
- Ikegami A, Eguchi S, Sato A, Yamada M, Kitajima A, Mitani N, Yonemori K (2006) Segregations of astringent progenies in the F1 populations derived from crosses between a Chinese pollination constant non-astringent (PCNA) ‘Luo Tian Tian Shi’, and Japanese PCNA and pollination-constant, astringent (PCA) cultivars. HortSci 41:561–563Google Scholar
- Kanzaki S, Yonemori K, Sugiura A, Sato A, Yamada M (2001) Identification of molecular markers linked to the trait of natural astringency loss Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki) fruit. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 126:51–55Google Scholar
- Khater F, Fournand D, Vialet S, Meudec E, Cheynier V, Terrier N (2012) Identification and functional characterization of cDNAs coding for hydroxybenzoate/hydroxycinnamate glucosyltransferases co-expressed with genes related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. J Exp Bot 63:1201–1214CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Shan L, Wang BL, Zhang JS (2002) Method for isolating functional RNA from the ripening persimmon fruit contented rich polysaccharides and polyphenolics. Plant Physiol Commun 38:463–466Google Scholar
- Sugiura A, Tomana T (1983) Relationships of ethanol production by seeds of different types of Japanese persimmons and their tannin content. HortSci 18:319–321Google Scholar
- Sugiura A, Yonemori K, Harada H, Tomana T (1979) Changes of ethanol and acetaldehyde contents in Japanese persimmon fruits and their relation to natural deastringency. Studies from the Institute of Horticulture Kyoto University 9:41–47Google Scholar
- Yamada M (1993) Persimmon breeding in Japan. Agr Res Quart 27:33–37Google Scholar
- Yamada M, Taira S, Ohtsuki M, Sato A, Iwanami H, Yakushiji H, Wang RZ, Yang Y, Li GC (2002) Varietal differences in the ease of astringency removal by carbon dioxide gas and ethanol vapor treatments among Oriental astringent persimmons of Japanese and Chinese origin. Sci Hortic 94:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar