FDR and SDR processes in meiosis and diploid gamete formation in poplars (Populus L.) detected by centromere-associated microsatellite markers
- 425 Downloads
Sexual polyploidisation is one of the appropriate approaches in poplar breeding. Controlled pollinations were carried out with spontaneously formed, as well as induced, 2n gametes. Among the offspring individuals, 36 triploid plants and 1 tetraploid individual were detected by flow cytometry. The parental clones and all polyploid offspring individuals were genotyped by 18 nuclear microsatellite markers. The allelic configurations, especially tri-allelic patterns, and dosage effects were used to recognise diploid contributions of the male or female gamete. Three out of 18 markers localised near the centromeres of linkage groups I, X and XV. They are assumed to be unaffected by crossing over events and, therefore, able to ascertain the mechanism of first division restitution (FDR) or second division restitution (SDR) to generate diploid gametes. The applied three unlinked centromere-associated microsatellite markers allow a very effective determination of FDR resp. SDR processes. Altogether, 21 diploid pollen (10 FDR and 11 SDR) and 13 diploid ovules (1 FDR and 12 SDR) as well as 2 cases of postmeiotic reconstitution were determined with no inconsistency for the three markers. A female hybrid aspen clone (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) was assured to be able to frequently spontaneously form diploid ovules by the SDR mechanism. The transferred average heterozygosity in FDR gametes was assessed to be remarkably higher than that in SDR gametes. However, a selective inducement to favour FDR gametes seems not to be feasible with the current thermo-treatment techniques.
KeywordsPopulus sp. Triploid Unreduced gametes Microsatellite markers Heterozygosity Poplar breeding
We thank Prof. Yang Minsheng (Agricultural University of Hebei, China) for providing Populus simonii pollen, Mr. Volker Schneck (Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics Waldsieversdorf) for providing some spontaneously generated triploids poplar plants, Ms. Elke Ewald for laboratory assistance in genotyping and Ms. Dina Führmann for language editing. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. This work was funded by the German Agency Renewable Resources (Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR)).
Data archiving statement
A spreadsheet file in the form of marker/genotype data is provided as a supplementary material.
- Cuenca J, Froelicher Y, Aleza P, Juarez J, Navarro L, Ollitrault P (2011) Multilocus half-tetrad analysis and centromere mapping in citrus: evidence of SDR mechanism for 2n megagametophyte production and partial chiasma interference in mandarin cv ‘Fortune’. Heredity 107:462–470. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2011.33 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dewitte A, Van Laere K, Van Huylenbroeck J (2012) Use of 2n gametes in plant breeding. In: Abdurakhmonov IY (ed) Plant breeding. Agricultural and Biological Sciences. pp 59–86. doi: 10.5772/29827Google Scholar
- Dong C-B, Suo Y-J, Kang X-Y (2014) Assessment of the genetic composition of triploid hybrid Populus using SSR markers with low recombination frequencies. Can J Forest Res:692–699 doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2013-0360Google Scholar
- Ewald D, Ulrich K, Liesebach H (2012) Erzeugung triploider Individuen und intersektioneller Hybriden bei verschiedenen Pappelarten. In: Züchtung und Ertragsleistung schnellwachsender Baumarten im Kurzumtrieb - Erkenntnisse aus drei Jahren FastWOOD, ProLoc und Weidenzüchtung, Hann. Münden. Beiträge aus der Nordwestdeutschen Forstlichen Versuchsanstalt, pp 183–193Google Scholar
- Johnsson H, Eklundh C (1940) Colchicine treatment as a method in breeding hardwood species. Svensk Papperstidning 43:337–373Google Scholar
- Kang X-Y, Zhu Z-T, Zhang Z-Y (2000) Breeding of triploids by the reciprocal crossing of Populus alba × P. glandulosa and P. tomentosa × P. bolleana. J Beijing For Univ 22:8–11Google Scholar
- Li YH, Kang X-Y, Wang SD, Zhang ZH, Chen HW (2008) Triploid induction in Populus alba × P. glandulosa by chromosome doubling of female gametes. Silv Genet 57:37–40Google Scholar
- Liesebach M, Schneck V, Wolf H (2012) Züchtung von Aspen für den Kurzumtrieb (Aspen improvement for short rotation coppice). In: Züchtung und Ertragsleistung schnellwachsender Baumarten im Kurzumtrieb - Erkenntnisse aus drei Jahren FastWOOD, ProLoc und Weidenzüchtung, Hann. Münden. Beiträge aus der Nordwestdeutschen Forstlichen Versuchsanstalt, pp 73–90Google Scholar
- Mashkina OS, Burdaeva IM, Belozerova MM, V’Yunova LN (1989) A method of inducing diploid pollen in woody species. Lesovedenie 1:19–25Google Scholar
- Seitz FW (1954) The occurrence of triploids after self-pollination of anomalous androgynous flowers of a grey poplar. Z Forstgenet 3:1–6Google Scholar
- Ulrich K, Ewald D (2014) Breeding triploid aspen and poplar clones for biomass production. Silv Genet 63:47–58Google Scholar
- Wang J, Kang X-Y, Li D-L, Chen H, Zhang P (2010) Induction of diploid eggs with colchicine during embryo sac development in Populus. Silv Genet 59:40–48Google Scholar
- Wang J, Kang X-Y, Li D-L (2012) High temperature-induced triploid production during embryo sac development in Populus. Silv Genet 61:85–93Google Scholar
- Xi XJ, Jiang XB, Li D, Guo LQ, Zhang JF, Wei ZZ, Li BL (2011) Induction of 2n pollen by colchicine in Populus × popularis and its triploids breeding. Silv Genet 60:155–160Google Scholar
- Yang S, Lu L, Ni Y (2006) Cloned poplar as a new fibre resource for the Chinese pulp and paper industry. Pulp Pap Can 107:34–37Google Scholar
- Zhang ZY, Li FL, Zhu ZT (1992) Chromosome doubling and triploid breeding of Populus tomentosa Carr. and its hybrid. J Beijing For Univ 14(Suppl):52–58Google Scholar
- Zhu Z, Kang X, Zhang Z (1998) Studies on selection of natural triploids of Populus tomentosa. Sci Silvae Sin 34:22–32Google Scholar