Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 1243–1256 | Cite as

Assessing the additive and dominance genetic effects of vegetative propagation ability in Eucalyptus—influence of modeling on genetic gain

  • Garel Makouanzi
  • Jean-Marc BouvetEmail author
  • Marie Denis
  • Aubain Saya
  • François Mankessi
  • Philippe Vigneron
Original Paper


To study the genetic determinism of propagation by cutting, 2,115 individuals of 83 full-sib families of the Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis hybrid were used as stock plants and propagated by cuttings. Shoot production (PROD) and cutting success (CUT) were measured in two periods corresponding to the dry and rainy seasons. The experiments showed a significant effect of propagation period, suggesting the combined influence of environmental conditions and physiological state of stock plants. Using the linear mixed model (LMM) and the generalized one (GLMM) to take into account the non-normal distribution, the additive and dominance variances were estimated. They were significantly different from zero for PROD and CUT, as was the interaction between genetic effects and periods. The dominance variance was equal or higher than additive variance for both traits (1 < σ 2 D /σ 2 A  < 1.5). Broad- and narrow-sense heritabilities change with the model type. For PROD, with LMM, they were moderate (h 2 ss = 0.182 and H 2 sl = 0.443) but high with GLMM (h 2 ss = 0.431 and H 2 sl = 0.891). For CUT, the same trend was observed for variances but the genetic control was weaker with heritabilities smaller than 0.3. The selection accuracy (r) was affected by the statistical model, r = 0.94 and r = 0.42 for PROD using LMM and GLMM, respectively. Genetic correlations between PROD, CUT, and the field growth of clones at 25 months were relatively low. These results are important elements to consider for breeding strategies that target genetic gain for both field growth and cutting success.


Propagation by cutting Linear mixed model Generalized linear mixed model Variance components Heritability Correlations 



This work was partially supported by a grant from the International Foundation of Sciences (IFS). We are grateful to the CRDPI monitoring team, to Alphonse Matsoumbou for pollination work, to David Okouo for seedling monitoring, and to Mélanie Toto, Prudence Ndoki, and Ulrich Saya for setting up and maintaining the trial and for data collection.

Data archiving statement

The data will be submitted to the Dryad organization upon acceptance of the manuscript.

The data included two files in text format.


PERIOD (propagation period) FAMILY (family code), IND (clone code) CROSS (crossing code) FEMALE (female code) MALE (male code) PROD (number of shoots produced) CUT (number of cutting collected).


PERIOD (propagation period) FAMILY (family code), IND (clone code) CROSS (crossing code) FEMALE (female code) MALE (male code) PROD (number of shoots produced) CUT (number of cutting collected).

HEIGHT25_months (height at field stage 25 months), CIR_25months (circumference at field stage 25 months).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garel Makouanzi
    • 1
  • Jean-Marc Bouvet
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Marie Denis
    • 2
  • Aubain Saya
    • 1
  • François Mankessi
    • 3
  • Philippe Vigneron
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre de Recherche sur la Durabilité et la Productivité des Plantations Industrielles, CRDPIPointe-NoireCongo
  2. 2.CIRAD, Research unit AGAP “Genetic improvement and adaptation of Mediterranean and tropical plants”Montpellier Cedex 5France
  3. 3.University of Marien Ngouabi 1654, Rue Motaba, PRONAR, Plateaux des 15ansBrazzavilleRépublique du Congo
  4. 4.CIRADMontpellier Cedex 5France

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