Structural organization, classification and phylogenetic relationship of cytochrome P450 genes in Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis
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The genus Citrus is an important fruit crop and nutritional source for the good health of humans. Cytochrome P450s represent about 1 % of the proteome and mediate diverse biochemical reactions pertaining to both primary and secondary metabolism. Analysis of Citrus genomic resources identified 296 plant cytochrome P450s (CYP) coding genes in Citrus clementina, 272 in double haploid (dh) Citrus sinensis, and 202 in C. sinensis. In C. clementina and dh C. sinensis, CYP genes are distributed into nine clans. In the three genomes, single intron containing CYP genes are predominant in the A-type families. Among non-A-type CYP families, multiple intron containing genes are predominant. More number of genes in CYP A-type families over non-A-type families is attributed to rapid evolution of A-type genes facilitated by their gene organization. Further, complex gene organization of non-A-type genes with the presence of multiple introns might have contributed to the slower evolvement of paralogs. Majority of introns (1,660) from three genomes showed canonical GT-AG splice sites. However, 33 introns showed non-conventional GC… PyAG splice sites and functionality of these splice sites is confirmed by the ESTs lacking this intron. Across the families, gene organization is conserved between the three genomes. In dh C. sinensis, 22 genes were identified to have alternate splicing. Examination of scaffolds in C. clementina revealed that majority of the Citrus CYP genes are solitary and a few of them are in clusters of 3–8 genes. PCR amplification of C. sinensis genomic DNA with gene-specific primers failed to amplify out-grouped genes Ccl-CYP706A16 and Ccl-CYP706B1, confirming that they are specific to C. clementina. Differential number of CYP genes observed between C. clementina and C. sinensis is attributed to the extent of variability between their parents representing ancestral taxa.
KeywordsCitrus clementina Citrus sinensis Cytochrome P450 Gene amplification Gene families Intron phasing
We gratefully acknowledge Prof. T. Papi Reddy, Former Head, Department of Genetics, Osmania University for critical reading of the manuscript. Thanks are due to Dr. P. R. Babu, Research Associate, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology, Osmania University for his kind help.
Accession numbers of all the CYPs reported in the study are provided in Table S1, Table S2, and Table S3 and can be retrieved from http://www.phytozome.net/and http://citrus.hzau.edu.cn/orange/download/data.php.
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