Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 1135–1147 | Cite as

Population genetic structure of a widespread coniferous tree, Taxodium distichum [L.] Rich. (Cupressaceae), in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and Florida

  • Ayako Tanaka
  • Masato Ohtani
  • Yoshihisa Suyama
  • Nobuyuki Inomata
  • Yoshihiko Tsumura
  • Beth A. Middleton
  • Hidenori Tachida
  • Junko KusumiEmail author
Original Paper


Studies of genetic variation can elucidate the structure of present and past populations as well as the genetic basis of the phenotypic variability of species. Taxodium distichum is a coniferous tree dominant in lowland river flood plains and swamps of the southeastern USA which exhibits morphological variability and adaption to stressful habitats. This study provides a survey of the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Florida to elucidate their population structure and the extent of genetic differentiation between the two regions and sympatric varieties, including bald cypress (var. distichum) and pond cypress (var. imbricatum). We determined the genotypes of 12 simple sequence repeat loci totaling 444 adult individuals from 18 natural populations. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed high levels of differentiation between the MAV and the Florida regions. Within the MAV region, there was a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. In addition, we found that there was almost no genetic differentiation between the varieties. Most genetic variation was found within individuals (76.73 %), 1.67 % among individuals within population, 15.36 % among populations within the regions, and 9.23 % between regions within the variety. Our results suggest that (1) the populations of the MAV and the Florida regions are divided into two major genetic groups, which might originate from different glacial refugia, and (2) the patterns of genetic differentiation and phenotypic differentiation were not parallel in this species.


Bald cypress SSRs Pond cypress Population structure Taxodium distichum 



The authors thank Y. Moriguchi and A. Sato for their help with the development of SSR markers and DNA extraction. We also thank S. Travis, J. Grace, and an anonymous reviewer for helpful suggestions on earlier drafts of the manuscript. This study was partially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (no. 22370083) and by Program for promotion of Basic and Applied Researches for Innovations in Bio-oriented Industry (BRAIN). Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government.

Supplementary material

11295_2012_501_MOESM1_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Appendix S1 Characterization of twelve T. distichum SSR marker loci, including accession numbers, primer sequences, motif, annealing temperatures (T a) (DOC 60.5 kb)
11295_2012_501_MOESM2_ESM.doc (94 kb)
Appendix S2 a Values of the log-likelihood of the data, lnP(X|K), as a function of the number of the clusters, K, resulting from the simulation in the STRUCTURE method (Pritchard et al. 2000). b ΔK based on the rate of change of lnP(X|K) between successive K values (Evanno et al. 2005) (DOC 93 kb)
11295_2012_501_MOESM3_ESM.doc (61 kb)
Appendix S3 Pairwise F st values of 18 populations. All pair showed a significant genetic differentiation (P < 0.01) (DOC 61 kb)
11295_2012_501_MOESM4_ESM.doc (44 kb)
Appendix S4 Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of populations at the MAV region (bald cypress only) (A) and at Florida region (B) (DOC 43.5 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayako Tanaka
    • 1
  • Masato Ohtani
    • 2
  • Yoshihisa Suyama
    • 3
  • Nobuyuki Inomata
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yoshihiko Tsumura
    • 2
  • Beth A. Middleton
    • 4
  • Hidenori Tachida
    • 1
  • Junko Kusumi
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceTohoku UniversityOsakiJapan
  4. 4.U.S. Geological Survey, National Wetlands Research CenterLafayetteUSA
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Science, International College of Arts and SciencesFukuoka Women’s UniversityFukuokaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Environmental Changes, Faculty of Social and Cultural StudiesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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