Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 587–596 | Cite as

Nuclear genetic markers indicate Danish origin of the Norwegian beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations established in 500–1,000 AD

  • Tor Myking
  • Igor Yakovlev
  • Geir Atle Ersland
Original Paper


The northernmost range of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is in southern Norway and consists of two distinct and isolated distributions, a single population at Seim in West Norway and several adjacent populations in Vestfold, East Norway. The modest beech pollen deposits beyond these main distributions suggest that the Norwegian beech distribution has never been an extension of the south Scandinavian range. We used genetic markers and historical sources to trace the ancestor populations for the beech at Seim and Vestfold, hypothesising Denmark as the most likely source. Nuclear inter-simple sequence repeat markers, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were applied to estimate genetic distances between beech populations in Norway, England and Denmark. The variation in chloroplast DNA polymorphism was estimated using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The nuclear genetic data indicate Denmark as a source for the beech in Norway, although the data are less certain in the case of Seim than in that of Vestfold. The populations from South England were genetically different from most Scandinavian populations. The genetic variation within Norwegian populations was only slightly lower than that of the English and Danish populations, questioning birds as vectors for dispersal. Thus, the pollen data and our results are in accordance with the intentional introduction and documented human migrations across Skagerrak before and during the Viking Age.


Genetic distance Genetic diversity Human introduction ISSR Scandinavia RFLP 



We wish to thank Hugh Milner and co-workers (UK), J.S. Jensen, B. Ditlevsen (Denmark), E. Finne, C. Kierulf, Å. Østgård and S. Øen (Norway) for organising the collection and shipment of beech buds. We also wish to thank K.E. Henningsmoen, H.I. Høeg, D. Skre and B. Myhre for valuable literature and discussions. J. Hubert, M. Sætersdal, T. Skrøppa and R. Sørensen have critically reviewed the paper, for which we are very grateful. J. Hubert also checked the English. We thank anonymous reviewers for constructive comments that substantially improved this manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the Norwegian Committee on Forest Genetic Resources and the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute.

Ethical standards

This work complies with the current laws in the countries in which it has been done.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11295_2010_358_MOESM1_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary material, S1 (DOC 35 kb)
11295_2010_358_MOESM2_ESM.doc (84 kb)
Supplementary material, S2 (DOC 84 kb)
11295_2010_358_MOESM3_ESM.doc (71 kb)
Supplementary material, S3 (DOC 71 kb)
11295_2010_358_MOESM4_ESM.doc (60 kb)
Supplementary material, S4 (DOC 60 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest Biology and EnvironmentNorwegian Forest and Landscape InstituteBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of Forest Biology and EnvironmentNorwegian Forest and Landscape InstituteÅsNorway
  3. 3.CMS—Centre for Medieval StudiesUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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