Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp 627–633 | Cite as

A major resistance gene from Russian apple ‘Antonovka’ conferring field immunity against apple scab is closely linked to the Vf locus

Original Paper


A major scab resistance gene called Va1 was identified in the Russian apple cultivar ‘Antonovka’ (accession APF22) conferring scab resistance under conditions of natural scab infection in the field. After scab scorings over a period of 3 years, a 1:1 segregation was observed in the mapping population 04/214 (‘Golden Delicious’ × ‘Antonovka’). The Va1 resistance gene provides sufficient broad spectrum resistance that is of use in apple resistance breeding and has been assigned Rvi17 according the proposal for a new scab nomenclature (Bus et al., Acta Horticulturae 814:739–746, 2009). Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) located on the apple linkage group (LG) 1 showed that the Va1 locus is closely linked (1 cM) to SSR CH-Vf1 known to cosegregate with the Vf locus. A tight genetic association was also observed between a specific cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker (ARD-CAPS) developed from the HcrVf paralog Vf2ARD present in ‘Antonovka’, but there is no indication yet for a causal relationship with Vf2ARD. Although the whole race spectrum of Va1 is still unknown, it was obvious that it acts against the scab races 6 and 7 which are able to overcome the resistance of Malus floribunda 821. A second resistance factor (named Va2) was studied by race 1-specific scab tests based on grafted 04/214 clones. A 1:1-segregation ratio was observed, too, but 18 “phenotypic recombinants” were found after comparisons with the field scab data of the same genotypes. Va2 was mapped on LG 1 with a genetic distance of about 15 cM above CH-Vf1. The positions of the newly identified ‘Antonovka’ scab resistance factors are compared with previously reported Va mapping approaches and published results from quantitative trait loci analyses performed with different ‘Antonovka’ genotypes.


Venturia inaequalis Malus Disease resistance Gene mapping Candidate gene HcrVf gene 


  1. Bénaouf G, Parisi L (2000) Genetics of host–pathogen relationship between Venturia inaequalis races 6 and 7 and Malus species. Phytopathology 90:236–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boudichevskaia A, Flachowsky H, Peil A, Fischer C, Dunemann F (2006) Development of a multiallelic SCAR marker for the scab resistance gene Vr1/Vh4/Vx from R12740-7A apple and its utility for molecular breeding. Tree Genet Gen 2:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boudichevskaia A, Flachowsky H, Dunemann F (2009) Identification and molecular analysis of candidate genes homologous to HcrVf genes for scab resistance in apple. Plant Breeding 126:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broggini GAL, Galli P, Parravicini G, Gianfranceschi L, Gessler C, Patocchi A (2009) HcrVf paralogs are present on linkage groups 1 and 6 of Malus. Genome 52:129–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bus VGM, Rikkerink EHA, van de Weg WE, Rusholme RL, Gardiner SE, Bassett HCM, Kodde LP, Parisi L, Laurens FND, Meulenbroek EJ, Plummer KM (2005) The Vh2 and Vh4 scab resistance genes in two differential hosts derived from Russian apple R12740-7A map to the same linkage group of apple. Mol Breeding 15:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bus V, Rikkerink E, Aldwinckle HS, Caffier V, Durel CE, Gardiner S, Gessler C, Groenwold R, Laurens F, Le Cam B, Luby J, Meulenbroek M, Kellerhals M, Parisi L, Patocchi A, Plummer K, Schouten HJ, Tartarini S, Van de Weg WE (2009) A proposal for the nomenclature of Venturia inaequalis races. Acta Horticulturae 814:739–746Google Scholar
  7. Calenge F, Faure A, Goerre M, Gebhardt C, Van de Weg E, Parisi L, Durel C-E (2004) Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis reveals both broad-spectrum and isolate-specific QTL for scab resistance in an apple progeny challenged with eight isolates of Venturia inaequalis. Phytopathology 94:370–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Durel CE, Van de Weg WE, Venisse JS, Parisi L (2000) Localization of a major gene for apple scab resistance on the European genetic map of the Prima × Fiesta cross. IOBC/WPRS Bull 23:245–248Google Scholar
  9. Fischer C, Fischer M (1996) Results in apple breeding at Dresden-Pillnitz. Gartenbauwissenschaft 61:139–146Google Scholar
  10. Gardiner SE, Bus VGM, Rusholme RL, Chagné D, Rikkering E (2007) Apple. In: Kole C (ed) Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants, vol 4. Springer, Heidelberg, p 62Google Scholar
  11. Gessler C, Patocchi A, Sansavini S, Tartarini S, Gianfranceschi L (2006) Venturia inaequalis resistance in apple. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:473–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gygax M, Gianfranceschi L, Liebhard R, Kellerhals M, Gessler C, Patocchi A (2004) Molecular markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vbj derived from Malus baccata jackii. Theor Appl Genet 109:1702–1709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hemmat M, Brown SK, Aldwinckle HS, Mehlenbacher SA, Weeden NF (2003) Identification and mapping of markers for resistance to apple scab from ‘Antonovka’ and ‘Hansen’s baccata #2’. Acta Horticulturae 622:153–158Google Scholar
  14. Lespinasse Y (1989) Breeding pome fruits with stable resistance to disease: 3 genes, resistance mechanisms, present work and prospects. IOBC/WPRS Bull 12:100–115Google Scholar
  15. Liebhard R, Gianfranceschi L, Koller B, Ryder CD, Tarchini R, Van De Weg E, Gessler C (2002) Development and characterization of 140 new microsatellites in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.). Mol Breeding 10:217–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmidt M (1938) Venturia inaequalis (COOKE) ADERHOLD. VIII. Weitere Untersuchungen schorfwiderstandsfähiger Apfelsorten. Der Züchter 10:280–291Google Scholar
  17. Silfverberg-Dilworth E, Matasci CL, Van de Weg WE, Van Kaauwen MPW, Walzer M, Kodde LP, Soglio V, Gianfranceschi L, Durel CE, Costa F, Yamamoto T, Koller B, Gessler C, Patocchi A (2006) Microsatellite markers spanning the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Tree Genet Gen 2:202–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Soriano JM, Joshi SG, Van Kaauwen M, Noordijk Y, Groenwold R, Henken B, Van de Weg WE, Schouten HJ (2009) Identification and mapping of the novel apple scab resistance gene Vd3. Tree Genet Gen 5:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Soufflet-Freslon V, Kouassi AB, Laurens L, Mathis L, Gobbin D, Patocchi A, Rezzonico F, Evans K, Fernandez F, Boudichevskaia A, Dunemann F, Stankiewicz-Kosyl M, Komjanc M, Mott D, Gianfranceschi L, Van de Weg WE, Bink M, Durel CE (2007) Pedigree-based mapping of scab resistance QTL in apple. In: 12th EUCARPIA symp. fruit breeding and genetics, Zaragoza, Spain, 16–20 Sept 2007, abstract book p. 94Google Scholar
  20. Soufflet-Freslon V, Gianfranceschi L, Patocchi A, Durel CE (2008) Inheritance studies of apple scab resistance and identification of Rvi14, a new major gene that acts together with other broad-spectrum QTL. Genome 51:657–667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Van Ooijen JW (2006) JoinMap® 4, Software for the calculation of genetic linkage maps in experimental populations. Kyazma B.V, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  22. Vinatzer BA, Patocchi A, Gianfranceschi L, Tartarini S, Zhang H-B, Gessler C, Sansavini S (2001) Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance. Mol Plant Microbe Interactions 14:505–515Google Scholar
  23. Vinatzer BA, Patocchi A, Tartarini S, Gianfranceschi L, Sansavini S, Gessler C (2004) Isolation of two microsatellite markers from BAC clones of the Vf scab resistance region and molecular characterization of scab-resistant accessions in Malus germplasm. Plant Breeding 123:321–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Visser T, Verhaegh JJ, De Vries DP (1974) Resistance to scab (Venturia inaequalis) and mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and fruiting properties of the offspring of the apple cultivar Antonovka. Euphytica 23:353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Williams EB, Kuć J (1969) Resistance in Malus to Venturia inaequalis. Ann Rev Phytopath 7:223–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zini E (2005) Costruzione di una mappa di associazione della popolazione di melo ‘Golden Delicious’ × ‘Freedom’ e caratterizzazione del gene resistenza Va a ticchiolatura. PhD thesis. Univ Bologna, ItalyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Breeding Research on Horticultural and Fruit CropsJulius Kühn InstituteDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations