Advertisement

Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 147–164 | Cite as

Genomic regions involved in productivity of two interspecific poplar families in Europe. 1. Stem height, circumference and volume

  • Sophie Y. Dillen
  • Véronique Storme
  • Nicolas Marron
  • Catherine Bastien
  • Sabrina Neyrinck
  • Marijke Steenackers
  • Reinhart Ceulemans
  • Wout Boerjan
Original Paper

Abstract

Interspecific hybrids of Populus species are known for their superior growth. In this study, we examined the effect of the genetic background and contrasting environmental conditions on growth and searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth traits. To this end, two hybrid poplar families resulting from controlled crosses, Populus deltoides ‘S9-2’ × P. nigra ‘Ghoy’ (D × N, 180 F1) and P. deltoides ‘S9-2’ × P. trichocarpa ‘V24’ (D × T, 182 F1), were grown at two contrasting sites, Northern Italy and Central France. At the end of the second growing season, tree dimensions (stem height, circumference, and volume) were assessed. The performances of both families significantly differed within and between sites. Tree volume was significantly larger at the Italian site as compared to the French site. Genotype by environment interactions were significant but low for both families and for all growth traits. Tight correlations among the individual growth traits indicated that there may be a common genetic mechanism with pleiotropic effects on these growth traits. In line with previous studies, linkage groups I, VII, IX, X, XVI, XVII, and XIX appeared to have genomic regions with the largest effects on growth traits. This study revealed that (1) both families have high potential for selection of superior poplar hybrids due to the pronounced heterosis (hybrid vigor) and the large genetic variability in terms of growth and (2) the choice of site is crucial for poplar cultivation.

Keywords

Populus Interspecific hybrids Growth Genotype by environment interaction (G × E) Heterosis Heritability Quantitative trait loci (QTL) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the European Commission through the Directorate General Research within the Fifth Framework Programme for Research—Quality of Life and Management of the Living Resources Programme, contract N° QLK5-CT-2002-00953 (POPYOMICS; http://www.soton.ac.uk/~popyomic). The authors thank Jean Gauvin and Patrick Poursat (INRA Orléans, France), Dr. Fabrizio Nardin (Alasia Vivai company, Cavallermaggiore, Italy), Dr. Maurizio Sabatti, Luca Ricciotti, and Francesco Salani (University of Viterbo, Italy) for their help with the management of field experiments and with the data collection, and Abraham Korol for useful comments on the MultiQTL software. Sophie Y. Dillen is a Research Fellow of the Research Foundation-Flanders (F.W.O.–Vlaanderen).

References

  1. Beavis WD (1998) QTL analyses: power, precision and accuracy. In: Paterson AH (ed) Molecular dissection of complex traits. CRC, New York, pp 145–162Google Scholar
  2. Becker WA (1984) Manual of quantitative genetics. Pullman Academic Enterprises, Washington, pp 191Google Scholar
  3. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Ser B-Stat Methodol 57:289–300Google Scholar
  4. Bergez JE, Auclair D, Bouvarel L (1989) First-year growth of hybrid poplar shoots from cutting or coppice origin. Forest Sci 35:1105–1113Google Scholar
  5. Boerjan W (2005) Biotechnology and the domestication of forest trees. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradshaw HD Jr, Stettler RF (1995) Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus. IV. Mapping QTLs with large effects on growth, form and phenology traits in a forest tree. Genetics 139:963–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradshaw HD Jr, Ceulemans R, Davis J, Stettler R (2000) Emerging model systems in plant biology: poplar (Populus) as a model forest tree. J Plant Growth Regul 19:306–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown S, Schroeder P, Birdsey R (1997) Aboveground biomass distribution of US eastern hardwood forests and the use of large trees as an indicator of forest development. Forest Ecol Manage 96:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burdon RD (1977) Genetic correlation as a concept for studying genotype-environment interaction in forest tree breeding. Agronomie 17:219–246Google Scholar
  10. Cervera MT, Gusmão J, Steenackers M, Peleman J, Storme V, Vanden Broeck A, Van Montagu M, Boerjan W (1996) Identification of AFLP molecular markers for resistance against Melampsora larici-populina in Populus. Theor Appl Genet 93:733–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cervera MT, Storme V, Ivens B, Gusmão J, Liu BH, Hostyn V, Van Slycken J, Van Montagu M, Boerjan W (2001) Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers. Genetics 158:787–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cervera MT, Storme V, Soto A, Ivens B, Van Montagu M, Rajora OP, Boerjan W (2005) Intraspecific and interspecific genetic and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Populus based on AFLP markers. Theor Appl Genet 111:1440–1456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ceulemans R (1990) Genetic variation in functional and structural productivity determinants in poplar. Thesis Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 100Google Scholar
  14. Ceulemans R, Deraedt W (1999) Production physiology and growth potential of poplars under short-rotation forestry culture. Forest Ecol Manage 121:9–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ceulemans R, Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Wiard BM, Braatne JH, Hinckley TM, Stettler RF, Isebrands JG, Heilman PE (1992) Production physiology and morphology of Populus species and their hybrids grown under short rotation. I. Clonal comparisons of 4-year growth and phenology. Can J Forest Res 22:1937–1948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ceulemans C, Shao BY, Jiang XN, Kalina J (1996) First- and second-year aboveground growth and productivity of two Populus hybrids grown at ambient and elevated CO2. Tree Physiol 16:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dickmann DI, Stuart KW (1983) The culture of poplars in eastern North America. Michigan State University Publications, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, pp 168Google Scholar
  18. Dillen SY, Marron N, Bastien C, Ricciotti L, Salani F, Sabatti M, Pinel MPC, Rae AM, Taylor G, Ceulemans R (2007) Effects of environment and progeny on biomass estimations of five hybrid poplar families grown at three contrasting sites across Europe. Forest Ecol Manage 252:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doerge RW, Rebaï A (1996) Significance thresholds for QTL interval mapping tests. Heredity 76:459–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dunlap JM, Heilman PE, Stettler RF (1992) Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. V. The influence of ramet position on 3-year growth variables. Can J Forest Res 22:849–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eckenwalder JE (2001) Descriptions of clonal characteristics. In: Dickmann DI, Isebrands JG, Eckenwalder JE, Richardson J (eds) Poplar culture in North America. Part B, Chapter 13. NRC Research, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp 331–382Google Scholar
  22. Falconer DS (1989) Introduction to quantitative genetics, 3rd edn. Longman Scientific and Technical, London, UK, pp 438Google Scholar
  23. Farmer RE Jr (1996) The genecology of Populus. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HD Jr, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation. Part I, Chapter 2. NRC Research, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp 33–55Google Scholar
  24. Farmer RE Jr, Freitag M, Garlick K (1989) Genetic variance and “C” effects in balsam poplar rooting. Silvae Genet 38:62–65Google Scholar
  25. Grattapaglia D, Sederoff R (1994) Genetic linkage maps of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla using a pseudo-test-cross: mapping strategy and RAPD markers. Genetics 137:1121–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Grattapaglia D, Bertolucci FLG, Penchel R, Sederoff RR (1996) Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling growth and wood quality traits in Eucalyptus grandis using a maternal half-sib family and RAPD markers. Genetics 144:1205–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Heilman PE, Stettler RF (1985) Genetic variation and productivity of Populus trichocarpa and its hybrids. II. Biomass production in a 4-year plantation. Can J Forest Res 15:384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Henderson CR (1953) Estimation of variance and co-variance components. Biometrics 9:226–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hoffmann AA, Parsons PA (1991) Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp 284Google Scholar
  30. Ingvarsson PK, Garcia MV, Luquez V, Hall D, Jansson S (2008) Nucleotide polymorphism and phenotypic associations within and around the phytochrome B2 locus in European aspen (Populus tremula, Salicaceae). Genetics 178:2217–2226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jansen RC, Van Ooijen JW, Stam P, Lister C, Dean C (1995) Genotype-by-environment interaction in genetic mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci. Theor Appl Genet 91:33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ketterings QM, Coe R, van Noordwijk M, Ambagau Y, Palm CA (2001) Reducing uncertainty in the use of allometric biomass equations for predicting above-ground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. Forest Ecol Manage 146:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Korol AB, Ronin YI, Nevo E (1998) Approximate analysis of QTL-environment interaction with no limits on the number of environments. Genetics 148:2015–2028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newburg L (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1:174–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laureysens I, Deraedt W, Indeherberge T, Ceulemans R (2003) Population dynamics in a six-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production. Biomass Bioenerg 24:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laureysens I, Pellis A, Willems J, Ceulemans R (2005) Growth and production of a short rotation coppice culture of poplar. III. Second rotation results. Biomass Bioenerg 29:10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lerner IM (1958) The genetic basis of selection. Wiley, New York, pp 298Google Scholar
  38. Li B, Wu R (1997) Heterosis and genotype × environment interactions of juvenile aspens in two contrasting sites. Can J Forest Res 27:1525–1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li JH, Su XH, Zhang QW, Zsuffa L (1999) Detection of QTLs for growth and phenology traits of poplar using RAPD markers. Forest Res 12:111–117 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  40. Lippman ZB, Zamir D (2007) Heterosis: revisiting the magic. Trends Genet 23:60–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lynch M, Walsh B (1998) Genetics and analysis of quantitative traits. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, pp 980Google Scholar
  42. Marron N, Bastien C, Sabatti M, Taylor G, Ceulemans R (2006) Plasticity of growth and sylleptic branchiness in two poplar families grown at three contrasting sites across Europe. Tree Physiol 26:935–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marron N, Dillen SY, Ceulemans R (2007) Evaluation of leaf traits for indirect selection of high yielding poplar hybrids. Env Exp Bot 61:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maxwell SE, Delaney HD (2004) Designing experiments and analyzing data: a model comparison perspective, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New Jersey, pp 217–218Google Scholar
  45. Möller R, Toonen M, van Beilen J, Salentijn E, Clayton D (2007) Crop platforms for cell wall biorefining: lignocellulose feedstocks. EPOBIO project. CNAP, University of York, UK, pp 162Google Scholar
  46. Morreel K, Goeminne G, Storme V, Sterck L, Ralph J, Coppieters W, Breyne P, Steenackers M, Georges M, Messens E, Boerjan W (2006) Genetical metabolomics of flavonoid biosynthesis in Populus: a case study. Plant J 47:224–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Muhle Larsen C (1970) Recent advances in poplar breeding. Int Rev Forest Res 3:1–67Google Scholar
  48. Namkoong G, Jonsson A, Eriksson G (1992) Genetic variation in nutrient response functions. Theor Appl Genet 85:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Neale DB, Savolainen O (2004) Association genetics of complex traits in conifers. Trends Plant Sci 9:325–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nyquist WE (1991) Estimation of heritability and prediction of selection response in plant populations. Crit Rev Plant Sci 10:235–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pinon J (1992) Variability in the genus Populus in sensitivity to Melampsora rusts. Silvae Genet 41:25–34Google Scholar
  52. Pontailler JY, Ceulemans R, Guittet J, Mau F (1997) Linear and non-linear functions of volume index to estimate woody biomass in high density young poplar stands. Ann Forest Sci 54:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rae AM, Robinson KM, Street NR, Taylor G (2004) Morphological and physiological traits influencing biomass productivity in short-rotation coppice poplar. Can J Forest Res 34:1488–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rae AM, Pinel MPC, Bastien C, Sabatti M, Street NR, Tucker J, Dixon C, Marron N, Dillen SY, Taylor G (2008) QTL for yield in bioenergy Populus: identifying G×E interactions from growth at three contrasting sites. Tree Genet Genom 4:97–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schubert C (2006) Can biofuels finally take center stage? Nature Biotechnol 24:777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Searle SR, Casella G, McCulloch CE (1992) Variance components. Wiley, New York, pp 501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shepherd M, Cross M, Dieters MJ, Henry R (2002) Branch architecture QTL for Pinus elliottii var. elliottii × Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis hybrids. Ann Forest Sci 59:617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Singh M, Ceccarelli S, Hamblin J (1993) Estimation of heritability from varietal trials data. Theor Appl Genet 86:437–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Stettler RF, Ceulemans R (1993) Clonal material as a focus for genetic and physiological research in forest trees. In: Ahuja MR, Libby WJ (eds) Clonal forestry. 1: Genetics and biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp 68–86Google Scholar
  60. Stettler RF, Zsuffa L, Wu R (1996) The role of hybridisation in the genetic manipulation of Populus. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HD Jr, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation. Part I, Chapter 4. NRC Research, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp 87–112Google Scholar
  61. Street NR, Skogström O, Sjödin A, Tucker J, Rodriguez-Acosta M, Nilsson P, Jansson S, Taylor G (2006) The genetics and genomics of the drought response in Populus. Plant J 48:321–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tsahouras V, Gullberg U, Lagercrantz U (2002) An AFLP and RFLP linkage map and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of growth traits in Salix. Theor Appl Genet 105:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tuskan GA, DiFazio S, Jansson S, Bohlmann J, Grigoriev I, Hellsten U, Putnam N, Ralph S, Rombauts S, Salamov A, Schein J, Sterck L, Aerts A, Bhalerao RR, Bhalerao RP, Blaudez D, Boerjan W, Brun A, Brunner A, Busov V, Campbell M, Carlson J, Chalot M, Chapman J, Chen G-L, Cooper D, Coutinho PM, Couturier J, Covert S, Cronk Q, Cunningham R, Davis J, Degroeve S, Déjardin A, dePamphilis C, Detter J, Dirks B, Dubchak I, Duplessis S, Ehlting J, Ellis B, Gendler K, Goodstein D, Gribskov M, Grimwood J, Groover A, Gunter L, Hamberger B, Heinze B, Helariutta Y, Henrissat B, Holligan D, Holt R, Huang W, Islam-Faridi N, Jones S, Jones-Rhoades M, Jorgensen R, Joshi C, Kangasjärvi J, Karlsson J, Kelleher C, Kirkpatrick R, Kirst M, Kohler A, Kalluri U, Larimer F, Leebens-Mack J, Leplé J-C, Locascio P, Lou Y, Lucas S, Martin F, Montanini B, Napoli C, Nelson DR, Nelson C, Nieminen K, Nilsson O, Pereda V, Peter G, Philippe R, Pilate G, Poliakov A, Razumovskaya J, Richardson P, Rinaldi C, Ritland K, Rouzé P, Ryaboy D, Schmutz J, Schrader J, Segerman B, Shin H, Siddiqui A, Sterky F, Terry A, Tsai C-J, Uberbacher E, Unneberg P, Vahala J, Wall K, Wessler S, Yang G, Yin T, Douglas C, Marra M, Sandberg G, Van de Peer Y, Rokhsar D (2006) The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science 313:1596–1604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Van Hecke P, Moermans R, Mau F, Guittet J (1995) Border effects and size inequality in experimental even-aged stands of poplar clones (Populus). Ann Forest Sci 52:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Venables WN, Ripley BD (2002) Modern applied statistics with S. 4th edn. Springer, New York, USA, pp 495Google Scholar
  66. Voorrips RE (2002) MapChart: software for the graphical presentation of linkage maps and QTLs. J Hered 93:77–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wilcox JR, Farmer RE Jr (1968) Heritability and C effects in early root growth of eastern cottonwood cuttings. Heredity 23:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wu R, Stettler RF (1997) Quantitative genetics of growth and development in Populus. II. The partitioning in genotype × environment interaction in stem growth. Heredity 78:124–134Google Scholar
  69. Wu R, Wang M-X, Huang M-R (1992) Quantitative genetics of yield breeding for Populus short rotation culture. I. Dynamics of genetic control and selection model of yield traits. Can J Forest Res 22:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wu R, Bradshaw HD Jr, Stettler RF (1998) Developmental quantitative genetics of growth in Populus. Theor Appl Genet 97:1110–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wullschleger SD, Yin TM, DiFazio SP, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunter LE, Davis MF, Tuskan GA (2005) Phenotypic variation in growth and biomass distribution for two advanced-generation pedigrees of hybrid poplars. Can J Forest Res 35:1779–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yu Q, Pulkkinen P (2003) Genotype-environment interaction and stability in growth of aspen hybrid clones. Forest Ecol Manage 173:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zavitkovski J (1981) Small plots with unplanted plot border can distort data in biomass production studies. Can J Forest Res 11:9–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zhang D, Zhang Z, Yang K (2006) QTL analysis of growth and wood chemical content traits in an interspecific backcross family of white poplar (Populus tomentosa × P. bolleana) × P. tomentosa. Can J Forest Res 36:2015–2023CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sophie Y. Dillen
    • 1
  • Véronique Storme
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicolas Marron
    • 1
    • 4
  • Catherine Bastien
    • 5
  • Sabrina Neyrinck
    • 6
  • Marijke Steenackers
    • 6
  • Reinhart Ceulemans
    • 1
  • Wout Boerjan
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Research Group of Plant and Vegetation EcologyWilrijkBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Plant Systems BiologyFlanders Institute for Biotechnology (VIB)GentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Molecular GeneticsGhent UniversityGentBelgium
  4. 4.UMR 1137 INRA-UHP Écologie et écophysiologie forestièresChampenouxFrance
  5. 5.Unité AméliorationGénétique et Physiologie Forestières, Institut National de la Reserche AgronomiqueArdonFrance
  6. 6.Research Institute for Nature and ForestGeraardsbergenBelgium

Personalised recommendations