Tree Genetics & Genomes

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 715–725

Mapping species differences for adventitious rooting in a Corymbia torelliana × Corymbia citriodora subspecies variegata hybrid

  • Mervyn Shepherd
  • Shabana Kasem
  • David J. Lee
  • Robert Henry
Original Paper

Abstract

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was carried out for adventitious rooting and associated propagation traits in a second-generation outbred Corymbia torelliana × Corymbia citriodora subspecies variegata hybrid family (n = 186). The parental species of this cross are divergent in their capacity to develop roots adventitiously on stem cuttings and their propensity to form lignotubers. For the ten traits studied, there was one or two QTL detected, with some QTL explaining large amounts of phenotypic variation (e.g. 66% for one QTL for percentage rooting), suggesting that major effects influence rooting in this cross. Collocation of QTL for many strongly genetically correlated rooting traits to a single region on linkage group 12 suggested pleiotropy. A three locus model was most parsimonious for linkage group 12, however, as differences in QTL position and lower genetic correlations suggested separate loci for each of the traits of shoot production and root initiation. Species differences were thought to be the major source of phenotypic variation for some rooting rate and root quality traits because of the major QTL effects and up to 59-fold larger homospecific deviations (attributed to species differences) relative to heterospecific deviations (attributed to standing variation within species) evident at some QTL for these traits. A large homospecific/heterospecific ratio at major QTL suggested that the gene action evident in one cross may be indicative of gene action more broadly in hybrids between these species for some traits.

Keywords

QTL mapping Propagation Species effects 

References

  1. Baker A, Walker SM (2005) Assessment of the Relative Amenability to Vegetative Propagation by Leafy Cuttings of 14 Tropical and Subtropical Eucalyptus and Corymbia Species. In: Sasaki S, Ishii K, Suzuki K, Sakurai S (eds) Plantation Technology in Tropical Forest Science, Tokyo, p 336Google Scholar
  2. Barrier M, Robichaux RH, Purugganan MD (2001) Accelerated regulatory gene evolution in an adaptive radiation. Proc Nat Acad Sci 98:10208–10213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benjamini Y, Hockberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc B 57:289–300Google Scholar
  4. Bradshaw HD (1998) Case history in genetics of long-lived plants: molecular approaches to domestication of a fast-growing forest tree: Populus. In: Paterson AH (ed) Molecular Dissection of Complex Traits. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 219–228Google Scholar
  5. Bradshaw HD, Grattapaglia D (1994) QTL mapping in interspecific hybrids of forest trees. For Genet 1:191–196Google Scholar
  6. Bradshaw HDJ, Stettler RF (1995) Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus. IV. Mapping QTLs with large effects on growth, form, and phenology traits in a forest tree. Genetics 139:963–973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brondani RPV, Brondani C, Tarchini R, Grattapaglia D (1998) Development, characterisation and mapping of microsatellite markers in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla. Theor Appl Genet 97:816–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brondani RPV, Brondani C, Grattapaglia D (2002) Towards a genus-wide reference linkage map for Eucalyptus based exclusively on highly informative microsatellite markers. Molec Genet Genomics 267:338–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burrows GE (2002) Epicormic stand structure in Angophora, Eucalyptus and Lophostemon (Myrtaceae) - implications for fire resistance and recovery. New Phytologist 153:111–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Byrne M, Marquez-Garcia MI, Uren T, Smith DS, Moran GF (1996) Conservation and genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in the genus Eucalyptus. Aust J Bot 44:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campinhos E Jr, Ikemori Y (1983) Production of vegetative propagules of Eucalyptus spp. by rooting of cuttings. In: Norman C (ed) Proceedings of the 2nd symposium on planted forests in the neotropics: a source of energy. IUFRO Working Party 51.07-09. IUFRO, Vicosa, pp 60–67Google Scholar
  12. Carnegie AJ (2007) Forest health condition in New South Wales, Australia, 1996–2005. 2. Fungal damage recorded in eucalypt plantations during forest health surveys. Australas Plant Pathol 36:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Churchill GA, Doerge RW (1994) Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping. Genetics 138:963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. de Assis TF (2000) Production and use of Eucalyptus hybrids for industrial purposes. In: Dungey H, Dieters MJ, Nikles DG (eds) Hybrid Breeding and Genetics of Forest Trees. Proceedings of QFRI/CRC-SPF Symposium. Noosa, Queensland, Australia, pp 63–74Google Scholar
  15. Doebley J, Lukens L (1998) Transcriptional regulators and the evolution of plant form. Plant Cell 10:1075–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flatt T, Tu MP, Tatar M (2005) Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history. Bioessays 27:999–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foster G, Campbell R, Adams W (1984) Heritability, gain and C effects in rooting of western hemlock cuttings. Can J For Res 14:628–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glaubitz J, Emebiri MG (2001) Dinucleotide microsatellites in Eucalyptus sieberi: inheritance, diversity and improved scoring of single base differences. Genome 44:1041–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grattapaglia D, Bertolucci FL, Sederoff RR (1995) Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling vegetative propagation in Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla using a pseudo-testcross strategy and RAPD Markers. Theor Appl Genet 90:933–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Han K, Bradshaw HDJ, Gordon MP, Han KH (1994) Adventitious root and shoot regeneration in vitro is under major gene control in an F2 family of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides). For Genet 1:139–146Google Scholar
  21. Haseman JK, Elston RC (1972) The investigation of linkage between quantitative trait and a marker locus. Behav Genet 2:3–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hill KD, Johnson LAS (1995) Systematic studies in the eucalypts 7. A revision of the bloodwoods, genus Corymbia (Myrtaceae). Telopea 6:185–504Google Scholar
  23. Johnson WC, Jackson LE, Ochoa O et al. (1999) Lettuce, a shallow-rooted crop, and Lactuca serriola, its wild progenitor, differ at QTL determining root architecture and deep soil water exploitation. Theor Appl Genet 101:1066–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson IG, Carnegie AJ, Henson M (2004) Selecting for disease tolerant Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata in New South Wales, Australia. In: Borralho N, Pereira J, Marques C et al. (eds) International IUFRO Conference of the SP2.08.03 on Silviculture and Improvement of Eucalypts. IUFRO, Aveiro, p 184Google Scholar
  25. Jones M, Stokoe R, Cross M et al. (2001) Isolation of microsatellite loci from spotted gum (Corymbia variegata), and cross-species amplification in Corymbia and Eucalyptus. Mol Ecol Notes 1:276–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lander E, Kruglyak L (1995) Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results. Nature Genet 11:241–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee D (2007) Development of Corymbia species and hybrids for plantations in eastern Australia. Aust For 70:11–17Google Scholar
  28. Lee D, Brawner J, Pomroy P (2004) Genetic variation in early growth and disease resistance of Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata in southern Queensland, Australia. In: Borralho N, Pereira JS, Marques C et al. (eds) International IUFRO Conference of the SP2.08.03 on Silviculture and Improvement of Eucalypts. IUFRO, Aveiro, pp 185–186Google Scholar
  29. Lee DJ, Debuse VJ, Pomroy PC, Robson KJ, Nikles DG (2005) Developing eucalypt hybrids for plantations in marginal areas of northern Australia. RIRDC, Canberra, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  30. Lewty MJ (1990) Effects of water logging on the growth and water relations of tree Pinus taxa. For Ecol Manag 30:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lexer C, Heinze B, Alia R, Rieseberg LH (2004) Hybrid zones as a tool for identifying adaptive genetic variation in outbreeding forest trees: lessons from wild annual sunflowers (Helianthus spp.). For Ecol Manag 197:49–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lexer C, Rosenthal DM, Raymond O, Donovan LA, Rieseberg LH (2005) Genetics of species differences in the wild annual Sunflowers, Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris. Genetics 169:2225–2239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lorz H, Wenzel G (2005) Molecular marker systems in plant breeding and crop improvement. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  34. Marcet E (1961) Investigation of the geographic variability of morphological characteristics in Populus deltoides Bartr. Silvae Genetica 10:161–172Google Scholar
  35. Marques CM, Vasquez-Kool J, Carocha VJ et al. (1999) Genetic dissection of vegetative propagation traits in Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. globulus. Theor Appl Genet 99:936–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marques C, Brondani R, Grattapaglia D, Sederoff R (2002) Conservation and synteny of SSR loci and QTLs for vegetative propagation in four Eucalyptus species. Theor Appl Genet 105:474–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marques CM, Carocha VJ, Pereira de Sá AR et al. (2005) Verification of QTL linked markers for propagation traits in Eucalyptus. Trees Genetics and Genomes 1:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller CR, Ochoa I, Nielsen KL, Beck D, Lynch JP (2003) Genetic variation for adventitious rooting in response to low phosphorus availability: potential utility for phosphorus acquisition from stratified soils. Functional Plant Biology 30:973–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Milliken GA, Johnson DE (1984) Analysis of Messy Data. Van Nortrand Reinhold, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Noble J (2001) Lignotubers and meristem dependence in mallee (Eucalyptus spp.) coppicing after fire. Aust J Bot 49:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Orr HA (2001) The genetics of species differences. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16:343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Paterson AH (1998) QTL Mapping in DNA Marker-Assisted Plant and Animal Improvement. In: Paterson AH (ed) Molecular Dissection of Complex Traits. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 131–143Google Scholar
  43. Pryor LD, Byrne OR (1969) Variation and taxonomy in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Silvae Genetica 18:64–71Google Scholar
  44. Purugganan MD (1998) The molecular evolution of development. BioEssays 20:700–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shepherd M, Huang S, Eggler P et al. (2006a) Congruence in QTL for adventitious rooting in unrelated outbred and inbred-like Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea hybrids resolves between and within species effects. Mol Breed 18:11–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shepherd M, Kasem S, Lee D, Henry R (2006b) Construction of microsatellite linkage maps for Corymbia. Silvae Genetica 55:228–238Google Scholar
  47. Shepherd M, Pomroy P, Dieters MJ, Lee D (2007) Genetic control of propagation traits in a single Corymbia torelliana × C. citriodora spp variegata family. Can J For Res 37(12):2563–2574Google Scholar
  48. Steane DA, Vaillancourt RE, Russell J et al. (2001) Development and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae). Silvae Genetica 50:89–91Google Scholar
  49. Stettler RF, Fenn RC, Heilman PE, Stanton BJ (1988) Populus trichocarpa × Populus deltoides hybrids for short-rotation culture: variation patterns and 4-year field performance. Can J For Res 18:745–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tanksley SD, Young ND, Paterson AH, Bonierbale MW (1989) RFLP mapping in Plant Breeding: New Tools for an Old Science. Bio/Technology 7:257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Van Ooijen J, Sandbrink H, Purimahua C et al. (1993) Mapping quantitative genes involved in a trait assessed on an ordinal scale: A case study with bacterial canker in Lycopersicon peruvianum. In: Yoder J (ed) Molecular Biology of Tomato. Technomic, Lancaster, pp 59–74Google Scholar
  52. Van Ooijen J, Boer M, Jansen R, Maliepaard C (2002) MapQTL (tm) Version 4.0, Software for the calculation of QTL positions on genetic maps. Plant Research International, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  53. Whittock SP (2003) Genetic control of coppice and lignotuber development in Eucalyptus globulus. Aust J Bot 51:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mervyn Shepherd
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shabana Kasem
    • 1
  • David J. Lee
    • 3
  • Robert Henry
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Plant Conservation GeneticsSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  2. 2.Cooperative Research Centre for ForestrySouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Primary Industries and FisheriesHorticulture and Forestry ScienceGympieAustralia

Personalised recommendations