Leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase gene (PpLDOX): a potential functional marker for cold storage browning in peach
- 352 Downloads
Enzymatic browning of the peach fruit mesocarp is a major component of the postharvest physiological disorder commonly called chilling injury or internal breakdown (IB). Previously, we detected a major quantitative trait locus (QTL; qP-Brn5.1m) affecting browning in peach using two related progeny populations (Pop-DG and Pop-G). In this report, a gene encoding the leucoanthocanidin dioxygenase (PpLDOX) enzyme was identified as the gene potentially responsible for this QTL. PpLDOX has a high similarity with the LDOX gene of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. It was co-located with qP-Brn5.1m via the bin mapping technique with the Prunus reference T×E map. A silent SNP within the PpLDOX coding sequence was used to locate the gene more precisely on the Pop-DG map and confirm its bin assignment. These results demonstrate both the utility of comparative mapping within Prunus using the T×E reference map and the power of the bin mapping approach for easily mapping genes in the Prunus genome. An SSR polymorphism was observed in the intron of PpLDOX gene sequence. The SSR co-segregated with the SNP and was used to assess association of PpLDOX with browning in 27 peach and nectarine cultivars. Cumulative evidence obtained indicates that PpLDOX partially explains genetic variation for cold storage browning susceptibility in peach and nectarine. This functional gene has potential use in marker-assisted breeding of new cultivars with lower IB susceptibility and for genotyping current cultivars for possible differential handling during storage to reduce symptom incidence.
KeywordsLeucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase PpLDOX qP-Brn5.1m
The assistance of David Garner for fruit quality measurements, Kevin Day for cultivar leaf sample collection, Josh Williamson, Jose Soto, Wai Gee and Helen Chan for laboratory assistance, and Drs. Howad and Arus for supplying the TxE bin-set DNA samples is gratefully acknowledged. This research was funded by UC Discovery Grants (bio03–10394 & bio05–10527) with the Industry-University Cooperative Research Program.
- Arai Y, Watanabe S, Kimira M, Shimoi K, Mochizuki R, Kinae N (2000) Dietry intake of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol. J Nutr 130:2378–2383Google Scholar
- Crisosto CH, Mitchell FG, Ju Z (1999) Susceptibility to chilling injury of peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars grown in California. HortScience 34:1116–1118Google Scholar
- Gradziel TM, Wang D (1993) Evaluation of brown rot resistance and its relation to enzymatic browning in clingstone peach germplasm. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 118:675–679Google Scholar
- Kader AA Chordas A (1984) Evaluating the browning potential of peaches. Calif. Agr. 38:14–15Google Scholar
- Ogundiwin EA, Peace CP, Gradziel TM, Dandekar AM, Bliss FA, Crisosto CH (2007) Molecular genetic dissection of chilling injury in peach fruit. Acta Hort 738:633–638Google Scholar
- Peace CP, Ahmad R, Gradziel TM, Dandekar AM, Crisosto CH (2005a) The use of molecular genetics to improve peach and nectarine post-storage quality. Acta Hort 682:403–409Google Scholar
- Peace CP, Crisosto CH, Garner DT, Dandekar AM, Gradziel TM Bliss FA (2006) Genetic control of internal breakdown in peach. Acta Hort 713:489–496Google Scholar
- Rozen S, Skaletsky HJ (2000) Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers. In: Krawetz S, Misener S (eds) Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 365–386Google Scholar
- Tsuda T, Yamaguchi M, Honda C, Moriguchi T (2004) Expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in the skin of peach and nectarine fruit. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 129:857–862Google Scholar
- Van Ooijen JW (2005) MapQTLÒ 5, Software for the mapping of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations. Kyazma B.V., Wageningen, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- Van Ooijen JW (2006) JoinMapÒ 4, Software for the calculation of genetic linkage maps in experimental populations. Kyazma B.V., Wageningen, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar