Journal of Experimental Criminology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 593–610 | Cite as

Understanding the time-course of an intervention’s mechanisms: a framework for improving experiments and evaluations

  • Shannon J. LinningEmail author
  • Kate Bowers
  • John E. Eck



The crime prevention evaluation literature has identified several potential side effects of interventions. These often-unintended consequences occur at different stages of prevention processes, including before official start dates. They can improve or reduce intervention impacts. Evaluations using before-and-after designs with or without controls can fail to identify these effects. We describe a longitudinal framework to guide the design and evaluation of interventions that can account for these side effects when causal mechanisms are better understood.


Our time-course framework provides a comprehensive assessment of the prevention process. Using place-based examples as illustrations, it builds on previously identified temporal benefits and backfires—such as anticipatory benefits, residual deterrence, and initial backfire—that have never been systematically organized into a single framework. We show how our framework can be incorporated into the EMMIE framework for assessing prevention utility.


The proposed time-course framework links together all temporal effects, their underlying mechanisms, and shows how they can vary by context.


The framework suggests that considering all decisions within these timelines will be more cost-effective and produce greater crime reductions in the long run. By considering the mechanisms that can be triggered at various points in an intervention’s time-course, we can better design experiments to test them and generate stronger evaluations of programs.


Crime prevention policy EMMIE framework Initial backfire Intervention time-course Program evaluation 



We would like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their comments on this manuscript. Their insights lead to substantial improvements in the final draft. This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada (SSHRC).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shannon J. Linning
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kate Bowers
    • 2
  • John E. Eck
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Criminal Justice and CriminologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  3. 3.School of Criminal JusticeUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

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