Journal of Experimental Criminology

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 565–595 | Cite as

Preventing future offending of delinquents and offenders: what have we learned from experiments and meta-analyses?

  • Doris L. MacKenzieEmail author
  • David P. Farrington



The main aim of this article is to review knowledge about what works in preventing future offending by delinquents and offenders. We examine what has been learned from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, and meta-analyses in the past 10 years about the effectiveness of correctional interventions.


We focus on important recent RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses from 2005 onwards. Where reported in the meta-analyses, we examine the number of RCTs included in the analyses and whether results from experiments differ from those contained in non-experimental designs.


Interventions based on surveillance, control, deterrence, or discipline are ineffective. Interventions based on restorative methods and skills training are effective. The effectiveness of interventions providing services and opportunities is unclear.


More randomized trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of programs. Only evidence-based programs should be implemented.


Randomized controlled trial Meta-analysis Systematic review Delinquency Reoffending Recidivism Evidence-based corrections Correctional interventions 


  1. Alexander, J. F., & Parsons, B. V. (1973). Short-term behavioral intervention with delinquent families: impact on family process and recidivism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81, 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2005). The psychology of criminal conduct. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, D. A., & Dowden, C. (2005). Managing correctional treatment for reduced recidivism: a meta-analytic review of programme integrity. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 10(2), 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Hoge, R. D. (1990a). Classification for effective rehabilitation: rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 19–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. T. (1990b). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology, 28, 369–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, W. C. (1966). Correctional outcome: an evaluation of 100 reports. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 57(2), 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldwin, S. A., Christian, S., Berkeljon, A., Shadish, W., & Bean, R. (2012). The effects of family therapies for adolescent delinquency and substance abuse: a meta-analysis. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 38, 281–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnes, G., Ahlman, L., Gill, C., Sherman, L. W., Kurtz, E., & Malvestuto, R. (2010). Low-intensity community supervision for low-risk offenders: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 6(2), 159–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berecochea, J., & Jaman, D. (1981). Time served in prison and parole outcome: An experimental study. Sacramento: California Department of Corrections.Google Scholar
  10. Bloom, H., Orr, L. L., Cave, G., Bell, S. H., Doolittle, F., & Lin, W. (1994). The national JTPA study: Overview of impacts, benefits, and costs of Title IIA. Cambridge: ABT Associates.Google Scholar
  11. Blumstein, A. (1997). U.S. criminal justice conundrum: rising prison populations and stable crime rates. Crime and Delinquency, 44(1), 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blumstein, A., & Beck, A. J. (1999). Population growth in U.S. prisons, 1980–1996. In M. Tonry & J. Petersilia (Eds.), Prisons, Crime and Justice, vol. 26, (pp. 17–62). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  13. Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., & Nagin, D. (1978). Deterrence and incapacitation: Estimating the effects of criminal sanctions on crime rates. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  14. Borduin, C. M., Mann, B. J., Cone, L. T., Henggeler, S. W., Fucci, B. R., Blaske, D. M., & Williams, R. A. (1995). Multisystemic treatment of serious juvenile offenders: long-term prevention of criminality and violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 569–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brody, S. R. (1976). The effectiveness of sentencing. London: Home Office, Research Study No. 35.Google Scholar
  16. Bush J., Glick B., & Taymans J. (1997). Thinking for a change. Longmont, CO: National Institute of Corrections, United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  17. Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 624–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chamberlain, P., Leve, L. D., & DeGarmo, D. S. (2007). Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for girls in the juvenile justice system: 2-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, P.M., Hartter, S., & Ford, E. (1992). An experiment in employment of offenders. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  20. Cullen, F. T., & Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing correctional rehabilitation: Policy, practice, and prospects. In J. Horney (Ed.), Criminal Justice 2000: Policies, processes, and decisions of the criminal justice system (Vol. 3). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  21. Cullen, F. T., & Gilbert, K. (1982). Reaffirming rehabilitation. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  22. Cullen, F. T., & Gilbert, K. (2013). Reaffirming rehabilitation (2nd ed.). Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  23. Curtis, N. M., Ronan, K. R., & Borduin, C. M. (2004). Multisystemic treatment: a meta-analysis of outcome studies. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dickie, J. L. (No Date). Summit County juvenile court drug court: Evaluation report July 1, 2000–June 30, 2001 Unpublished manuscript. The Institute for Health and Social Policy, University of Akron, Akron, OH.Google Scholar
  25. Duwe, G., & Kerschner, D. (2008). Removing a nail from the boot camp coffin: an outcome evaluation of the Minnesota’s challenge incarceration program. Crime and Delinquency, 54(4), 614–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Farrington, D. P. (1983). Randomized experiments on crime and justice. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice (Vol. 4, pp. 257–308). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  27. Farrington, D. P., & Petrosino, A. (2001). The campbell collaboration crime and justice group. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 578, 35–49.Google Scholar
  28. Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2005). Randomized experiments in criminology: what have we learned in the last two decades? Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 9–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Farrington, D. P., Ohlin, L. E., & Wilson, J. Q. (1986). Understanding and controlling crime: Toward a new research strategy. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Farrington, D. P., Ditchfield, J., Hancock, G., Howard, P., Jolliffe, D., Livingston, M. S., & Painter, K. A. (2002). Evaluation of two intensive regimes for young offenders. London: Home Office, Research Study No. 239.Google Scholar
  31. Farrington, D. P., Weisburd, D. L., & Gill, C. E. (2011). The Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group: A decade of progress. In C. J. Smith, S. X. Zhang, & R. Barberet (Eds.), Routledge handbook of international criminology (pp. 53–63). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Feder, L., Wilson, D. B., & Austin, S. (2008). Court-mandated interventions for individuals convicted of domestic violence. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2008, 12.Google Scholar
  33. Folkard, M. S., Smith, D. E., & Smith, D. D. (1976). IMPACT (Vol. 2). London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  34. Gendreau, P., Smith, P., & French, S. (2006). The theory of effective correctional intervention: Empirical status and future directions. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory. Advances in criminological theory, vol. 15 (pp. 419–446). New Brunswick: Transaction.Google Scholar
  35. Glick, B., & Goldstein A. P. (1987). Aggression replacement training. Journal of Counseling & Development., 65, 356–362.Google Scholar
  36. Gottfredson, D. C., Najaka, S. S., Kearley, B. W., & Rocha, C. M. (2006). Long-term effects of participation in the Baltimore City drug treatment court: results from an experimental study. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(1), 67–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hahn, R. A., Bilukha, O., Lowy, J., Crosby, A., Fullilove, M. T., Liberman, A., Moscicki, E., Synder, S., Tuma, F., Corso, P., & Schofield, A. (2005). The effectiveness of therapeutic foster care for the prevention of violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(2S1), 72–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harlow, C. W. (2003). Education and correctional populations. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from
  39. Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., & Swenson, C. C. (2006). Methodological critique and meta-analysis as Trojan horse. Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 447–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for antisocial behavior in children and adolescents (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  41. Jolliffe, D., Farrington, D. P., & Howard, P. (2013). How long did it last? A 10-year reconviction follow-up of high intensity training for young offenders. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9(4), 515–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Killias, M., Gillieron, G., Kissling, I., & Villettaz, P. (2010a). Community service versus electronic monitoring- what works better? Results of a randomized trial. British Journal of Criminology, 50(6), 1155–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kurlychek, M., & Kempinen, C. (2006). Beyond boot camp: the impact of aftercare on offenders’ reentry. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(2), 363–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Landenberger, N. A., & Lipsey, M. W. (2005). The positive effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for offenders: a meta-analysis of factors associated with effective treatment. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(4), 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Latessa, E. J., Lowenkamp, C. T., & Bechtel, K. (2009). Community corrections centers, parolees, and recidivism: An investigation into the characteristics of effective reentry programs in Pennsylvania. Report to the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency. Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati.Google Scholar
  46. Lattimore, P. K., Witte, A. D., & Baker, J. R. (1990). Experimental assessment of the effect of vocational training on youthful property offenders. Evaluation Review, 14, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leschied, A., & Cunningham, A. (2002). Seeking effective interventions for serious young offenders: Interim results of a four-year randomized study of Multisystemic Therapy in Ontario, Canada. London: London Family Court Clinic.Google Scholar
  48. Lipsey, M. (1992). Juvenile delinquency treatment: A meta-analytic inquiry into the variability of effects. In T. Cook, H. Cooper, D. Cordray, H. Hartmann, L. Hedges, R. Light, T. Louis, & F. Mosteller (Eds.), Meta-analysis for explanation. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  49. Lipsey, M. W. (1995). What do we learn from 400 research studies on the effectiveness of treatment with juvenile delinquents? In J. McGuire (Ed.), What works? Reducing offending (pp. 63–78). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Lipsey, M. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: a meta-analytic overview. Victims and Offenders, 4, 124–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lipsey, M. W., & Cullen, F. T. (2007). The effectiveness of correctional rehabilitation: a review of systematic reviews. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, 297–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  53. Lipsey, M. W. & Landenberger, N. A. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral interventions. In B. C. Welsh, & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims and Places (pp. 57–71). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Lipsey, M. W., Landenberger, N. A., & Wilson, S. J. (2007). Effects of cognitive-behavioral programs for criminal offenders. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2007, 6.Google Scholar
  55. Lipton, D. S., Martinson, R., & Wilks, J. (1975). The effectiveness of correctional treatment: A survey of treatment evaluation studies. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  56. Littell, J. H. (2005). Lessons from a systematic review of effects of Multisystemic Therapy. Children and Youth Services Review, 27, 445–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Littell, J. H. (2006). The case for Multisystemic Therapy—evidence or orthodoxy? Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 458–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Little, G. L., & Robinson, K. D. (1988). Moral reconation therapy: A systematic step-by-step treatment system for treatment resistant clients. Psychological Reports, 62(1), 135–151.Google Scholar
  59. Lösel, F. (1995). Increasing consensus in the evaluation of offender rehabilitation? Lessons from recent research synthesis. Psychology Crime and Law, 2, 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lösel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(1), 117–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lowenkamp, C. T., & Latessa, E. J. (2005). Evaluation of Ohio’s CCA programs. Cincinnati: Center for Criminal Justice Research, University of Cincinnati.Google Scholar
  62. MacDonald, J. M., Morral, A. R., Raymond, B., & Eibner, C. (2007). The efficacy of the Rio Hondo DUI court: a 2-year field experiment. Evaluation Review, 31(4), 4–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). Evidence-based corrections: identifying what works. Crime and Delinquency, 46(4), 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. MacKenzie, D. L. (2001). Corrections and sentencing in the 21st century: evidence-based corrections and sentencing. The Prison Journal, 81(3), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacKenzie, D. L. (2002). Reducing the criminal activities of known offenders and delinquents: Crime prevention in the courts and corrections. In L. W. Sherman, D. P. Farrington, B. C. Welsh, & D. L. MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. MacKenzie, D. L. (2005). The importance of using scientific evidence to make decisions about correctional programming. Criminology and Public Policy, 4(2), 249–258.Google Scholar
  67. MacKenzie, D. L. (2006). What works in corrections? Reducing the criminal activities of offenders and delinquents. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. MacKenzie, D. L. (2012). The effectiveness of corrections-based work and academic and vocational education programs. In J. Petersilia & K. R. Reitz (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of sentencing and corrections (pp. 492–520). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  69. MacKenzie, D. L., & Armstrong, G. S. (Eds.). (2004). Correctional boot camps: Military basic training as a model for corrections. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. MacKenzie, D. L., & Herbert, E. (Eds.). (1996). Correctional boot camps: A tough intermediate sanction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  71. MacKenzie, D. L., & Parent, D. G. (2004). Boot camp prisons for young offenders. In D. L. MacKenzie & G. J. Styve (Eds.), Correctional boot camps: Military basic training or a model for corrections? Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MacKenzie, D. L., & Zajac, G. (2013). What works in corrections: The impact of correctional interventions on recidivism. Report to The Committee on the Causes and Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration. Washington DC: The National Academies.Google Scholar
  73. MacKenzie, D. L., Bierie, D., & Mitchell, O. (2007). An experimental study of a therapeutic boot camp: impact on impulses, attitudes and recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3(3), 221–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maguire, K. E., Flanagan, T. J., & Thornberry, T. P. (1988). Prison labor and recidivism. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 4, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Martinson, R. (1974). What works? Questions and answers about prison reform. The Public Interest, 10, 22–54.Google Scholar
  76. McGuire, J. (2001). What works in correctional intervention? Evidence and practical implications. In G. A. Bernfeld, D. P. Farrington, & A. W. Lescheid (Eds.), Offender rehabilitation in practice (pp. 25–43). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  77. Mills, L. G., Barocas, B., & Ariel, B. (2013). The next generation of court-mandated domestic violence treatment: a comparison study of batterer intervention and restorative justice programs. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 9, 65–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2007). Does incarceration-based drug treatment reduce recidivism? A meta-analytic synthesis of the research. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3(4), 353–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., Eggers, A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2012a). Drug courts’ effects on criminal offending for juveniles and adults. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2012, 4.Google Scholar
  80. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., Eggers, A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2012b). Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: a meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(1), 60–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2012c). The effectiveness of incarceration-based drug treatment on criminal behavior: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2012, 18.Google Scholar
  82. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., Eggers, A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2014). Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: A meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(1), 66–71.Google Scholar
  83. Office of Justice Programs. (2014). Drug courts. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 12/21/2014.
  84. Palmer, T. (1975). Martinson revisited. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 12, 133–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Palmer, T. (1983). The ‘effectiveness’ issue today: an overview. Federal Probation, 46, 3–10.Google Scholar
  86. Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1993). Intensive probation and parole. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice (Vol. 17, pp. 281–335). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  87. Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., & Buehler, J. (2003). Scared Straight and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 589, 41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Petrosino, A., Turpin-Petrosino, C., Hollis-Peel, M., & Lavenberg, J. G. (2013). Scared Straight and other juvenile awareness programs for preventing juvenile delinquency: a systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2013, 5.Google Scholar
  89. Renzema, M., & Mayo-Wilson, E. (2005). Can EM reduce crime for moderate to high risk offenders? Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ross, R. R., & Fabiano, E. A. (1985). Time to think: A cognitive model of delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation. Johnson City: The Institute of Social Sciences and Arts.Google Scholar
  91. Sawyer, A. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2011). Effects of multisystemic therapy through midlife: a 21.9-year follow-up to a randomized clinical trial with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 643–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Saylor, W. G., & Gaes, G. G. (1992). PREP study links UNICOR work experience with successful post-release outcome. Washington, DC: U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons.Google Scholar
  93. Schaeffer, C. M., & Borduin, C. M. (2005). Long-term follow-up to a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with serious and violent juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sechrest, L., White, S., & Brown, E. (1979). The rehabilitation of criminal offenders: Problems and prospects. Washington, D.C.: National academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  95. Sexton, T. L., & Alexander, J. F. (2000). Functional family therapy. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Shanahan, M., Lancsar, E., Haas, M., Lind, B., Weatherburn, D., & Chen, S. (2004). Cost-effectiveness analysis of the New South Wales adult drug court program. Evaluation Review, 28(1), 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sherman, L. W., Gottfredson, D., MacKenzie, D. L., Eck, J., Reuter, P., & Bushway, S. (1997). Preventing crime: What works, what doesn’t, what’s promising. Washington, DC: U.S. National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  98. Sherman, L. W., Farrington, D. P., Welsh, B. C., & MacKenzie, D. L. (Eds.). (2002). Evidence-based crime prevention. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. Solomon, A. L., Kachnowski, V., & Bhati, A. (2005). Does parole work? Analyzing the impact of postprison supervision on rearrest outcomes. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Strang, H., Sherman, L. W., Mayo-Wilson, E., Woods, D., & Ariel, B. (2013). Face-to-face meetings of offenders and victims: effects on offender recidivism and victim satisfaction. A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2013, 12.Google Scholar
  101. Tong, L. S. J., & Farrington, D. P. (2008). Effectiveness of “Reasoning and Rehabilitation” in reducing offending. Psicothema, 20, 20–28.Google Scholar
  102. Turner, W., & MacDonald, G. (2011). Treatment Foster Care for improving outcomes in children and young people: a systematic review. Research on Social Work Practice, 21, 501–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Turner, S., Longshore, D., Wenzel, S., Fain, T., Morral, A., Deschenes, E., Harrell, A., Greene, J., Iguchi, M., McBride, D., & Taxman F. (1999). National evaluation of 14 drug courts. Washington, D.C.: Research Report submitted to US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  104. Uggen, C. (1997). Age, employment and the duration structure of recidivism: Estimating the “true effect” of work on crime. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Society of Criminology, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  105. Uggen, C. (2000). Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: a duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review, 65, 529–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Villettaz, P., Gillieron, G., & Killias, M. (2015). The effects on reoffending of custodial vs. noncustodial sanctions: an updated systematic review of the state of knowledge. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2015, 1.Google Scholar
  107. Villettaz, P., Killias, M., & Zoder, I. (2006). The effects of custodial vs. non-custodial sentences on re-offending: a systematic review of the state of knowledge. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2006, 13.Google Scholar
  108. Visher, C. A., Winterfield, L., & Coggeshall, M. B. (2005). Ex-offender employment programs and recidivism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(3), 295–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Visher, C. A., Winterfield, L., & Coggeshall, M. B. (2006). Systematic review of non-custodial employment programs: impact on recidivism rates of ex-offenders. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 2006, 1.Google Scholar
  110. Weisburd, D. (2010). Justifying the use of non-experimental methods and disqualifying the use of randomized controlled trials: challenging folklore in evaluation research in crime and justice. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 6(2), 209–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Weisburd, D., Lum, C. M., & Petrosino, A. (2001). Does research design affect study outcomes in criminal justice? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 578, 50–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wells, J. B., Minor, K. I., Angel, E., & Stearman, K. D. (2006). Quasi-experimental evaluation of a shock incarceration and aftercare program for juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson, D. B., Gallagher, C. A., Coggeshall, M. B., & MacKenzie, D. L. (1999). A quantitative review and description of corrections based education, vocation and work programs. Corrections Management Quarterly, 3, 8–18.Google Scholar
  114. Wilson, D. B., Gallagher, C. A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education, vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wilson, D. B., MacKenzie, D. L., & Mitchell, F. N. (2005). Effects of correctional boot camps on offending: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 1(6).Google Scholar
  116. Wilson, D., Mitchell, O., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2006). A systematic review of drug court effects on recidivism. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 459–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Justice Center for Research and Department of Sociology and CriminologyThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Institute of CriminologyCambridge UniversityCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations