Journal of Experimental Criminology

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 407–442 | Cite as

An experimental study of compressed work schedules in policing: advantages and disadvantages of various shift lengths

  • Karen L. AmendolaEmail author
  • David Weisburd
  • Edwin E. Hamilton
  • Greg Jones
  • Meghan Slipka



The objectives of this research were to test the impacts of three shift lengths (8-, 10-, and 12-hour) on performance, health, safety, quality of life, sleep, fatigue, alertness, off-duty employment, and overtime among police.


This study consisted of a randomized block experimental design. There were 275 participating officers from two large police departments. Data were collected as part of a multi-site clinical trial for which we employed the same protocols in both sites. The blocks included site and time of day of the shift. Unique measures of work performance, safety, and fatigue were collected using laboratory-based simulations collected during the end of the shifts, and self-report instruments were used to capture other outcomes such as health and quality of life. The analysis model we employed was a block randomized ANCOVA in which the pre-test dependent measures served as the covariate.


The results indicated that those working 10-hour shifts had a significantly higher quality of work life (f = .16) and averaged significantly more sleep (f = .19) than those on 8-hour shifts. Furthermore, those working 8-hour shifts averaged significantly more overtime (f = .42) than did those assigned to 10- and 12-hour shifts. In addition, officers working 12-hour shifts experienced greater levels of sleepiness (f = .20) and reported lower levels of alertness (f = .21) at work than officers on 8-hour shifts.


There do not appear to be any significant health, safety, or performance problems associated with compressed work week schedules in policing. Indeed, the implementation of 10-hour shifts may be a viable alternative to traditional 8-hour schedules considering the findings of this study. It is important to note that the benefits associated with 10-hour shifts did not inure to the 12-hour shifts. Although our study did not reveal any significant effects associated with objective measures of fatigue across shifts, the implementation of 12-hour shifts should be done only after careful consideration of some of the potential concerns. Limitations of this study include lack of information regarding the methods and costs associated with implementation of compressed schedules, and the low level of reliability for driving and shooting simulation exercises. Future research should examine the impact of overtime hours on fatigue, safety, and performance, and ways to more effectively regulate hours of work in policing.


Compressed schedules Compressed work weeks Police scheduling Police shift schedules Shift length Ten-hour shifts Twelve-hour shifts 



We wish to thank collaborators Anneke Heitmann, PhD; Jon Shane, PhD; Christopher Ortiz, PhD; and Eliab Tarkghen for their significant contributions to this work who are co-authors of our complete technical report of the National Institute of Justice and available at (Amendola et al., 2011, in press).

No project of this magnitude would be possible without the participation of dedicated and forward-thinking leaders in law enforcement agencies. As such we wish to thank Chief (ret.) Ella Bully-Cummings of the Detroit (MI) Police Department and Chief Theron Bowman, PhD of the Arlington (TX) Police Department for their participation in the study, and very much appreciate all of the officers who participated on the part of those agencies.

We also acknowledge the U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice for providing funding for this experiment under grant #: 2005-FS-BX-0057. Specifically, our thanks go to Brett Chapman, PhD, Thomas Feucht, PhD, Winifred Reed, and Director John Laub, PhD. Former NIJ personnel Maggie Heisler, Akiva Liberman, PhD, and Bryan Vila, PhD were instrumental to the research.

Finally, we are appreciative of former staff, fellows, and interns of the Police Foundation.


  1. Aamodt, M. G. (2010). Industrial organizational psychology: an applied approach (6th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth CENGAGE Learning.Google Scholar
  2. Åkerstedt, T., & Gillberg, M. (1990). Subjective and objective sleepiness in the active individual. International Journal of Neuroscience, 52(1–2), 29–37. doi: 10.3109/00207459008994241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, N., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, R. W., Stein, C. A., Aponso, B. L., Rosenthal, T. J., & Hogue, J. R. (1990). Low-cost part- task driving simulator using microcomputer technology. Washington: Transportation Research Board.Google Scholar
  5. Amendola, Weisburd, Hamilton, Jones, Slipka, Heitmann, Shane, Ortiz, & Tarkghen (2011, in press). The impact of shift length in policing on performance, health, quality of life, sleep, fatigue and extra-duty employment. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.Google Scholar
  6. Andrusaitis, S. F., Oliveira, R. P., & Filho, T. E. P. B. (2006). Study of the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain in truck drivers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Clinics, 61(6), 503–510. doi: 10.1590/S1807-59322006000600003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Armstrong-Stassen, M. (1998). Alternative work arrangements: Meeting the challenges. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie Canadienne, 39(1–2), 108–123. doi: 10.1037/h0086799.Google Scholar
  8. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Razavieh, A. (1985). Introduction to research in education (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  9. Axelsson, J. (2005). Long shifts, short rests and vulnerability to shift work. (Doctoral Dissertation) Stockholm University: Stockholm. Retrieved from
  10. Baltes, B. B., Briggs, T. E., Huff, J. W., Wright, J. A., & Neuman, G. A. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 496–513. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.4.496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barter Trenholm, S. B. (1997). The satisfaction of police officers and their spouses with 12-hour shift work schedules (Doctoral Dissertation). Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.Google Scholar
  12. Barton, J., Costa, G., Smitt, L. R., Spelten, E. R., Totterdell, P. A., & Folkard, S. (1995). The standard shiftwork index manual: A battery of questionnaires for assessing shiftwork- related problems. Work and Stress, 9, 3–30.Google Scholar
  13. Battelle Memorial Institute, JIL Information Systems (1998). An overview of the scientific literature concerning fatigue, sleep, and the circadian cycle. Retrieved from
  14. Bayley, D. H., & Worden, R. F. (1998). Police overtime: An examination of key issues. National Institute of Justice in Research in Brief. Retrieved from
  15. Bédard, M., Parkkari, M., Weaver, B., Riendeau, J., & Dahlquist, M. (2010). Assessment of driving performance using a simulator protocol: Validity and reproducibility. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 64(2), 336–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bendak, S. (2003). 12-hour workdays: Current knowledge and future directions. Work and Stress, 17(4), 321–336. doi: 10.1080/02678370310001643478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bennett, S. A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial operations: An appraisal. International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 4(2/3), 207–231. doi: 10.1504/IJRAM.2003.003528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernardi, RF. A. (1994). Validating research results when Cronbach's alpha is below .70: a methodological procedure. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54(3), 766–775.Google Scholar
  19. Bernreuter, M., & Sullivan, M. (1995). Survey and critique of studies related to shift length variations in nursing from 1970 to 1993. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 32(2), 188–197. doi: 10.1016/0020-7489(94)00026-G.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, P. (1974). “Cycle scheduling” for eight and ten hour days. The Police Chief, 38-41.Google Scholar
  21. Breaugh, J. (1983). The 12-hour work day: Differing employee reactions. Personnel Psychology, 36, 277–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burke, R. J. (2003). Length of shift, work outcomes, and psychological well-being of nursing staff. International Journal of Public Administration, 26(14), 1637–1646. doi: 10.1081/PAD-120024415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calvasina, E. J., & Boxx, W. R. (1975). Efficiency of workers on the four-day workweek. Academy of Management Journal, 18(3), 604–610. doi: 10.2307/255689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Campolo, M., Pugh, J., Thompson, L., & Wallace, M. (1998). Pioneering the 12-hour shift in Australia – implementation and limitations. Australian Critical Care, 11(4), 112–115. doi: 10.1016/S1036-7314(98)70496-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., & Williams, L. J. (2000). Construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(2), 249–276. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1999.1713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Caruso, C. C., Hitchcock, E. M., Dick, R. B., Russo, J. M., & Schmit, J. M. (2004). Overtime and extended work shifts: Recent findings on illness, injuries, and health behaviors (DHHS Publication No. 2004-143). Cincinnati: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.Google Scholar
  27. Cascio, W. F. (1991). Applied psychology in personnel management (4th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  28. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavior sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  29. Coulton, G. F., & Feild, H. S. (1995). Using assessment centers in selecting entry-level police Officers: Extravagance or justified expense? Public Personnel Management, 24(2), 223–254.Google Scholar
  30. Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24(4), 349–354. doi: 10.1037/h0047358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cruz, C., Rocco, P. D., & Hackworth, C. (2000). Effects of quick rotating shift schedules on the health and adjustment of air traffic controllers. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 71(4), 400–407.Google Scholar
  32. Cunningham, J. B. (1981). Exploring the impact of a ten-hour compressed shift schedule. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 2(3), 217–222. doi: 10.1002/job.4030020307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cunningham, J. B. (1982). Compressed shift schedules: Altering the relationship between work and non-work. Public Administration Review, 42(5), 438–447. doi: 10.2307/975646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cunningham, J. B. (1989). A compressed shift schedule: Dealing with some of the problems of shift-work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(3), 231–245. doi: 10.1002/job.4030100304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Czeisler, C. A., Barger, L. K., Landrigan, C., Lockley, S., Rararatnam, S., Cade, B., Ronda, J. M., O’Brien, C., & Edwards, S. (2005). Harvard Work Hours Health, and Safety Study. Unpublished instrument. Retrieved from
  36. Daniel, J., & Potasova, A. (1989). Oral temperature and performance in 8 hour and 12 hour shifts. Ergonomics, 32(7), 689–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davey, J. D., Obst, P. L., & Sheehan, M. C. (2001). Demographic and workplace characteristics which add to the prediction of stress and job satisfaction within the police workplace. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 16(1), 29–39. doi: 10.1007/BF02802731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. deCarufel, A., & Schaan, J. (1990). The impact of compressed work weeks on police job involvement. Canadian Police College Journal, 14(2), 81–97.Google Scholar
  39. Dinges, D. F., & Powell, J. W. (1985). Microcomputer analyses of performance on a portable, simple visual RT task during sustained operations. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 17, 652–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dowd, P. J., Oakley, C. J., French, J., Fischer Jr, J. R., & Storm, W. F. (1994). One- year results for the Kelly Air Force Base compressed work week survey. Interim Technical Report for period November 1992- August 1993. 1-10.Google Scholar
  41. Duchon, J. C., Keran, C. M., & Smith, T. J. (1994). Extended workdays in an underground mine: A work performance analysis. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 36(2), 258–268.Google Scholar
  42. Duchon, J. C., Smith, T. J., Keran, C. M., & Koehler, E. J. (1997). Psychophysiological manifestations of performance during work on extended workshifts. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 20(1), 39–49. doi: 10.1016/S0169-8141(96)00030-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dunham, R. B., & Hawk, D. L. (1977). The four-day/forty-hour week: Who wants it? The Academy of Management Journal, 20(4), 644–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dunham, R. B., Pierce, J. L., & Castaneda, M. B. (1987). Alternative work schedules: Two field quasi-experiments. Personnel Psychology, 40, 215–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Duxbury, L., & Haines, G., Jr. (1991). Predicting alternative work arrangements from salient attitudes: A study of decision makers in the public sector. Journal of Business Research, 23, 83–97. doi: 10.101610148-2963(91)90060-B.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dwyer, T., Jamieson, L., Moxham, L., Austen, D., & Smith, K. (2007). Evaluation of the 12- hour shift trial in a regional intensive care unit. Journal of Nursing Management, 15(7), 711–720. doi: 10.1111/0.1365-2934.2006.007370x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eaton, P., & Gottselig, S. (1980). Effects of longer hours, shorter week for intensive care nurses. Dimensions in Health Services, 57, 25–27.Google Scholar
  48. Facer, R. L., & Wadsworth, L. (2008). Alternative work schedules and work-family balance: A research note. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 28(2), 166–177. doi: 10.1177/0734371X08315138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Facer, R. L., & Wadsworth, L. (2010). Four-day work weeks: Current research and practice. Connecticut Law Review, 42(4), 1031–1046.Google Scholar
  50. Ferguson, C. J. (2009). An effect size primer: A guide for clinicians and researchers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 532–538. doi: 10.1037/a0015808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fields, W. L., & Loveridge, C. (1988). Critical thinking and fatigue: How do nurses on 8 and 12 hour shifts compare? Nursing Economics, 6(4), 189–195.Google Scholar
  52. Fitzpatrick, J. M., While, A. E., & Roberts, J. D. (1999). Shift work and its impact upon nurse performance: Current knowledge and research issues. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(1), 18–27. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.1999.00861.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleiss, J. L. (1982). Multicentre clinical trials: Bradford Hill’s contribution and some subsequent developments. Statistics in Medicine, 1(4), 353–359. doi: 10.1002/sim.4780010413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Folkard, S., & Lombardi, D. A. (2004). Modeling the impact of the components of long work hours on injuries and “accidents”. United Kingdom: Paper presented at the National Conference.Google Scholar
  55. Folkard, S., & Tucker, P. (2003). Shift work, safety and productivity. Occupational Medicine, 53(2), 95–101. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqg047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Foster, L. W., Latack, J. C., & Reindl, L. J. (1979). Effects and promises of the shortened work week. Paper presented at the 39th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  57. Garbarino, S., Nobili, L., Beelke, M., Balestra, V., Cordelli, A., & Ferrilo, F. (2002). Sleep disorders and daytime sleepiness in state police shiftworkers. Archives of Environmental Health, 57(2), 167–173. doi: 10.1080/00039890209602932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gaugler, B. B., Rosenthal, D. B., Thornton, G. C., & Bentsen, C. (1987). Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph: Meta-analysis of assessment center validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3), 493–511. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Glueck, W. F. (1979). Changing hours of work: A review and analysis of the research. The Personnel Administrator, 24(3), 44–67.Google Scholar
  60. Hamelin, P. (1987). Lorry driver’s time habits in work and their involvement in traffic accidents. Ergonomics, 30(9), 1323–1333. doi: 10.1080/00140138708966026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Härmä, M., Sallinen, M., Ranta, R., Mutanen, P., & Müller, K. (2002). The effect of an irregular shift system on sleepiness at work in train drivers and railway traffic controllers. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(2), 141–151. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2869.2002.00294.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Harrington, J. M. (1994). Shift work and health: A critical review of the literatures on working hours. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, 23(5), 699–705.Google Scholar
  63. Hart, A., & Krall, S. (2007). Productivity: Do 8-9 hour shifts make a difference? Annals of Emergency Medicine, 50(3), S69–S70. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.06.372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hart, P. M., Wearing, A. J., & Headey, B. (1994). Perceived quality of life, personality, and work experiences: Construct validation of the police daily hassles and uplifts scales. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21(3), 283–311. doi: 10.117710093854894021003001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Heselgrave, R., Rhodes, W., & Gill, V. (2000). A prospective study examining the changes to worker health and safety after shifting from 9 to 12.5 hours shifts. In S. Hornberger, P. Knauth, G. Costa, et al. (Eds.), Shiftwork in the 21st Century. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  66. Huck, S. W., & McLean, R. A. (1975). Using a repeated measures ANOVA to analyze the data from a pretest-posttest design: A potentially confusing task. Psychological Bulletin, 82(4), 511–518. doi: 10.1037/h0076767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hughes, F. (2006). Does the benefit outweigh the cost? Using assessment centers in selecting middle managers. The Police Chief, August.Google Scholar
  68. Jeanmonod, R., Brook, C., Winther, M., Pathak, S., & Boyd, M. (2008). Declining resident productivity over time in the emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 51(4), doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.01.065.
  69. Johns, M. W. (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep, 14(6), 540–545.Google Scholar
  70. Johnson, M. D., & Sharit, J. (2001). Impact of a change from an 8-h to a 12-h shift schedule on workers and occupational injury rates. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 27(5), 303–319. doi: 10.1016/S0169-8141(00)00058-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Josten, E. J. C., Ng-A-Tham, J. E. E., & Thierry, H. (2003). The effects of extended workdays on fatigue, health, performance and satisfaction in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 44(6), 643–652. doi: 10.1046/j.0309-2402.2003.02854.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kanungo, R. N. (1982). Measurement of job and work involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(3), 341–349. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.67.3.341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kirk, R. E. (1995).Experimental design: procedures for the behavioural sciences, 3rd edn. Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/ColeGoogle Scholar
  74. Knauth, P. (2007). Extended work periods. Industrial Health, 45(1), 125–136. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.45.125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Krause, D. E., Kersting, M., Heggestad, E. D., & Thornton, G. C. (2006). Incremental validity of assessment center ratings over cognitive ability tests: A study at the executive management level. International jounal of Selection and Assessment, 14(4), 360–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kribbs, N. B., & Dinges, D. F. (1994). Vigilance decrement and sleepiness. In J. R. Harsh & R. D. Ogilvie (Eds.), Sleep onset mechanisms (pp. 113–125). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  77. Laundry, B. R., & Lees, R. E. M. (1991). Industrial accident experience of one company on 8- and 12-hour shift systems. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 33(8), 903. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199108000-00018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lees, R. E. M., & Laundry, B. R. (1989). Comparison of reported workplace morbidity in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts in one plant. Journal of Social Occupational Medicine, 39(3), 81–84. doi: 10.1093/occmed/39.3.81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Liberman, A. M., Best, S. R., Metzler, T. J., Fagan, J. A., Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (2002). Routine occupational stress and psychological distress in police. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 25(2), 421–439. doi: 10.1108/13639510210429446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lilley, R., Feyer, A. M., Kirk, P., & Gander, P. (2002). A survey of forest workers in New Zealand. Do hours of work, rest, and recovery play a role in accidents and injury? Journal of Safety Research, 33(1), 53–71. doi: 10.1016/S0022-4375(02)00003-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lindsey, D. (2007). Police fatigue: An accident waiting to happen. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 76(8), 1–6.Google Scholar
  82. Lipscomb, J. A., Trinkoff, A. M., Geiger-Brown, J., & Brady, B. (2002). Work-schedule characteristics and reported musculoskeletal disorders or registered nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 28(6), 394–401.Google Scholar
  83. Lipsey, M. (2000). Statistical conclusion validity for intervention research: A significant (p < .05) problem. In L. Bickman (Ed.), Validity and social experimentation: Donald Campbell’s legacy (pp. 101–120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  84. Lowden, A., Kecklund, G., Axelsson, J., & Akerstedt, T. (1998). Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 24(3), 69–75.Google Scholar
  85. Lowry, P. E. (1997). The assessment center process: New directions. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 53-62. Scholar
  86. Macdonald, W., & Bendak, S. (2000). Effects of workload level and 8-versus 12-h workday duration on test battery performance. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 26(3), 399–416. doi: 10.1016/S0169-8141(00)00015-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McClay, J. (2008). Comparison of ten-hour and twelve-hour shifts demonstrates no difference in resident productivity [abstract]. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 52, S151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. McCreary, D., & Thompson, M. (2004). The development of a reliable and valid measure of stressors in policing. A Summary of Findings from WSIB Development Grant #02-051. Toronto, ON: Stress and Coping Group, Defence R&D Canada.Google Scholar
  89. McGettrick, K. S., & O’Neill, M. A. (2006). Critical care nurses: Perceptions of 12-hour shifts. Nursing in Critical Care, 11(4), 188–197. doi: 10.1111/j.1362-1017.2006.00171.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Melekian, B. K. (1999). Alternative work schedules and the twelve-hour shift. Subject to Debate, 13(8/9), 1–2.Google Scholar
  91. Mills, M. E., Arnold, B., & Wood, C. M. (1983). Core-12: A controlled study of the impact of 12-hour scheduling. Nursing Research, 32(6), 356–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Mitchell, R. J., & Williamson, A. M. (2000). Evaluation of an 8-hour versus a 12-hour shift roster on employees at a power station. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work- family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(4), 400–410. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.4.400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nielsen, G. (2007). Managing fatigue a new approach to an old problem. Journal of California Law Enforcement, 41, 22–26.Google Scholar
  95. Northrup, H. R. (1991). The twelve-hour shift in the North American mini-steel industry. Journal of Labor Research, 12(3). doi: 10.1007/BF02685463.
  96. Oliver, B. (2005, July). Ten-hour shifts: A good fit. Law and Order. Retrieved from
  97. Peacock, B., Glube, R., Miller, M., & Clune, P. (1983). Police officers' responses to 8 and 12 hour shift schedules. Physiology and Behavior, 26, 479–493. doi: 10.1080/00140138308963364.Google Scholar
  98. Petticrew, M., Bambra, C., Whitehead, M., Sowden, A., & Akers, J. (2007). The health and wellbeing effects of changing the organization of shift work: A systematic review. London: Public Health Research Consortium.Google Scholar
  99. Pierce, J. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1992). The 12-hour work day: A 48-hour, eight-day week. Academy of Management Journal, 35(5), 1086–1098. doi: 10.2307/256542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pilcher, J. J., & Huffcutt, A. I. (1996). Effects of Sleep deprivation on performance: A meta-analysis. Sleep, 19, 318–326.Google Scholar
  101. Reid, K., & Dawson, D. (2000). Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58, 58–62. doi: 10.1136/oem.58.1.58.Google Scholar
  102. Reid, N., Robinson, G., & Todd, C. (1993). The quantity of nursing care on wards working 8 and 12 hour shifts. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 30(5), 403–413. doi: 10.1016/0020-7489(93)90050-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ronen, S. A., & Primps, S. B. (1981). The compressed work week as organizational change: Behavioral and attitudinal outcomes. Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 61–74. doi: 10.2307/257141.Google Scholar
  104. Rosa, R. R. (1995). Extended workshifts and excessive fatigue. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(Suppl. 2), 51–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.1995.tb00227.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rosa, R. R., & Bonnet, M. H. (1993). Performance and alertness on 8 h and 12 h rotating shifts at a natural gas utility. Ergonomics, 36(10), 1177–1193. doi: 10.1080/00140139308967987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rosa, R. R., & Colligan, M. J. (1988). Long workdays versus restdays: Assessing fatigue and alertness with a portable performance battery. Human Factors, 30(3), 305–317.Google Scholar
  107. Rosa, R. R., & Colligan, M. J. (1992). Application of a portable test battery in the assessment of fatigue in a laboratory and worksite studies of 12-hour shifts. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 18(2), 113–115.Google Scholar
  108. Rosa, R. R., Colligan, M. J., & Lewis, P. (1989). Extended workdays: Effects of 8-hour and 12- hour rotating shift schedules on performance, subjective alertness, sleep patterns, and psychosocial variables. Work and Stress, 3(1), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rosekind, M. R., & Schwartz, G. E. (1988). Perception of sleep and wakefulness: Accuracy and certainty of subjective judgments. Sleep Research, 17, 89.Google Scholar
  110. Rosenthal, T. J., Parseghian, Z., Allen, R. W., & Stein, A. C. (1995). STISIM: The low-cost driving simulator. Hawthorne, CA: Systems Technology, Inc.Google Scholar
  111. Ruegg, R. L. (1987). Reported anxiety on work shifts for coronary care nurses (Doctoral dissertation). Muncie, IN: Ball State University.Google Scholar
  112. Sallinen, M., Harma, M., Mutanen, P., Ranta, R., Virkkala, J., & Muller, K. (2005). Sleepiness in various shift combinations of irregular shift systems. Industrial Health, 43, 114–122. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.43.114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schroeder, D. J., Rosa, R. R., & Witt, L. (1998). Some effects of 8- vs. 10-hour work schedules on the test performance/alertness of air traffic control specialists. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 21(3-4), 307–321. doi: 10.1016/S0169-8141(97)00044-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Scott, A., & Kittaning, P. A. (2001, April). Shift work hazards. Jacksonville Medicine. Retrieved from
  115. Smith, L., Folkard, S., Tucker, P., & MacDonald, I. (1998). Work shift duration: A review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 55(4), 217–229. doi: 10.1136/oem.55.4.217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sparks, K., Cooper, C., Fried, Y., & Shirom, A. (1997). The effects of hours of work on health: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 391–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stenzel, W., & Buren, R. (1983). Police work scheduling: Management issues and practices. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Center for Public Safety.Google Scholar
  118. Stone, P. W., Du, Y., Cowell, R., Amsterdam, N., Helfrich, T. A., Linn, R. W., et al. (2006). Comparison of nurse, system and quality patient care outcomes in 8-hour and 12- hour shifts. Medical Care, 44(12). doi: 10.1097/01.mlr.0000237180.72275.82.
  119. Sundermeier, J. (2008). A look at the 12-hour shift: The Lincoln police department study. The Police Chief, 75(3).Google Scholar
  120. Szczurak, T., Kaminska, E., & Szpak, A. (2007). Estimation of the psychological load in the performance of nurses’ work based on subjective fatigue symptoms. Advances in Medical Science, 52(1), 102–104.Google Scholar
  121. Thorne, D. R., Johnson, D. E., Redmond, D. P., Sing, H. C., Belenky, G., & Shapiro, J. M. (2005). The Walter Reed palm-held psychomotor vigilance test. Behavior Research Methods, 37(1), 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thornton, G. C., & Gibbons, A. M. (2009). Validty of assessment centers for personnel selection. Human Resource Management Review, 19, 169–187. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2009.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Todd, C., Reid, N., & Robinson, G. (1989). The quality of nursing care on wards working eight and twelve hour shifts: A repeated measures study using the MONITOR index of quality of care. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 26(4), 359–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Todd, C., Robinson, G., & Reid, N. (1993). 12-hour shifts: Job satisfaction of nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 1, 215–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Totterdell, P., & Smith, L. (1992). Ten-hour days and eight-hour nights: Can the Ottawa shift system reduce the problems of shiftwork? Work and Stress, 6(2), 139–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Trick, L. M., Toxopeus, R., & Wilson, D. (2010). The effects of visibility conditions, traffic density, and navigational challenge on speed compensation and driving performance in older adults. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 1661–1671. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.04.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tucker, P., Smith, L., Macdonald, I., & Folkard, S. (1998). The impact of early and late shift changeovers on sleep, health, and well-being in 8- and 12-hour shift systems. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(3), 265–275. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.3.3.265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ugrovics, A., & Wright, J. (1990). 12-hour shifts: Does fatigue undermine ICU nursing judgments? Nursing Management, 21(1), 64A–64G.Google Scholar
  129. van der Hulst, M. (2003). Long work hours and health. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 29(3), 171–188.Google Scholar
  130. Vega, A., & Gilbert, M. J. (1997). Longer days, shorter weeks: Compressed work weeks in policing. Public Personnel Management, 26(3), 391–402.Google Scholar
  131. Vila, B. J. (2006). Impact of long work hours on police officers and the communities they serve. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 49, 972–980. doi: 10.1002/ajim.20333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vila, B. J., Morrison, G. B., & Kenney, D. J. (2002). Improving shift schedule and work-hour policies and practices to increase police officer performance, health, and safety. Police quarterly, 5(1), 4–24. doi: 10.1177/109861102129197995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Volle, M., Brisson, G., Pérusee, M., Tanaka, M., & Doyon, Y. (1979). Compressed work-week: Psychophysiological and physiological repercussions. Ergonomics, 22(9), 1001–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Walker, R. B., & Eisenberg, C. (1995). The 12-hour, fixed shift measuring satisfaction. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 64, 18–20.Google Scholar
  135. Washburn, M. S. (1991). Fatigue and critical thinking on eight-and twelve-hour shifts. Nursing Management, 22(9), 80A, 80D, 80 F-80H.Google Scholar
  136. Weisburd, D., & Buerger, M. (1986). Alternative work schedules for the Piscataway (NJ) police department. Rutgers, Newark, NJ: Unpublished manuscript, School of Criminal Justice.Google Scholar
  137. Weisburd, D., Lum, C. M., & Yang, S. (2003). When can we conclude that treatments or programs “don’t work”? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587(1), 31–48. doi: 10.1177/0002716202250782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Weisburd, D., & Taxman, F. (2000). Developing a multicenter randomized trial in criminology: The case of HIDTA. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16(3), 315. doi: 10.1023/A:1007574906103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Minnesota studies in vocational rehabilitation: XXII. Manual for the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
  140. White, J., & Beswick, J. (2003). Working long hours. Sheffield: Health and Safety Laboratory.Google Scholar
  141. Williamson, A. M., Gower, C. G. I., & Clarke, B. C. (1994). Changing the hours of shiftwork: A comparison of 8-hour and 12-hour shift rosters in a group of computer operators. Ergonomics, 37, 287–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wintle, J. M., Pattrin, L., Crutchfield, J. E., Allgeier, P. J., & Gaston-Johansson, F. (1995). Job satisfaction and the 12-hour shift. Nursing Management, 26(2), 54. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.1993.tb00216.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wood, J., Chaparro, A., & Hickson, L. (2009). Interaction between visual status, driver age and distracters on daytime driving performance. Vision Research, 49, 2225–2231. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2009.06.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen L. Amendola
    • 1
    Email author
  • David Weisburd
    • 2
    • 3
  • Edwin E. Hamilton
    • 1
  • Greg Jones
    • 1
  • Meghan Slipka
    • 1
  1. 1.Police FoundationWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.The Hebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.George Mason UniversityFairfaxUSA

Personalised recommendations