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Review: Development of an in situ observation network for terrestrial ecological remote sensing: the Phenological Eyes Network (PEN)

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The Phenological Eyes Network (PEN), which was established in 2003, is a network of long-term ground observation sites. The aim of the PEN is to validate terrestrial ecological remote sensing, with a particular focus on seasonal changes (phenology) in vegetation. There are three types of core sensors at PEN sites: an Automatic Digital Fish-eye Camera, a HemiSpherical SpectroRadiometer, and a Sun Photometer. As of 2014, there are approximately 30 PEN sites, among which many are also FluxNet and/or International Long Term Ecological Research sites. The PEN is now part of a biodiversity observation framework. Collaborations between remote sensing scientists and ecologists working on PEN data have produced various outcomes about remote sensing and long-term in situ monitoring of ecosystem features, such as phenology, gross primary production, and leaf area index. This article reviews the design concept and the outcomes of the PEN, and discusses its future strategy.

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This research was supported by the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM RA4 PI#102) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).

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Correspondence to Kenlo Nishida Nasahara.

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K. N. Nasahara and S. Nagai have contributed significantly and agreed with the content of the manuscript.

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Nasahara, K.N., Nagai, S. Review: Development of an in situ observation network for terrestrial ecological remote sensing: the Phenological Eyes Network (PEN). Ecol Res 30, 211–223 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-014-1239-x

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  • Remote sensing
  • Phenology
  • Ground truth
  • Biodiversity
  • Vegetation index