Ecological Research

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 257–269 | Cite as

Accumulation and decay dynamics of coarse woody debris in a Japanese old-growth subalpine coniferous forest

  • Yu Fukasawa
  • Shingo Katsumata
  • Akira S. Mori
  • Takashi Osono
  • Hiroshi Takeda
Original Article


Far less is known about the coarse woody debris (CWD) stock and decay process in temperate Asia compared with that in boreal and temperate Europe and North America. We estimated coniferous CWD stock (logs and snags), decay rate and process, and fungal species responsible for the decay process in a Japanese subalpine coniferous forest. The CWD mass was 42.4 Mg ha−1, which was the greatest among the previous data recorded in temperate Asia. The decay rate calculated using the annual input of CWD divided by CWD accumulation was 0.036 year−1, whereas the decay rate when measured chronosequentially was 0.020–0.023 year−1. The decay process was divided into two phases characterized by different dominant organic chemical constituents. In the first phase, both acid-unhydrolyzable residue and holocellulose decayed simultaneously, suggestive of the white-rot process. In the second phase, holocellulose was selectively decomposed and AUR accumulated, suggestive of the brown-rot process. Nutrients (N, P, K, Na, Mg, and Ca) were mineralized in the first phase but immobilized in the second phase. The fruiting bodies of 26 taxa of fungi were recorded as occurring on CWD in the study area. Trichaptum abietinum and T. fuscoviolaceum, which dominated in the first phase and are known as white-rot fungi, were assumed to be the main decomposers of lignocellulose in the first phase. Although no known strong wood decomposers dominated the second phase, Laetiporus sulphureus and Oligoporus caesius, known as brown-rot fungi, were expected to participate in the selective decomposition of holocellulose in the second phase.


Brown-rot Fungi Log Snag White-rot 



We are grateful to Drs. A. Komiyama, N. Osawa, T. Hishi, T. Shimamura, Y. Doi, E. Mizumachi and S. Saitoh for valuable comments. We also thank H. Okada and members of the laboratory of forest ecology in Kyoto University for their help in field and laboratory works. We would like to thank Enago ( for the English language review.


  1. Aakala T (2010) Coarse woody debris in late-successional Picea abies forests in northern Europe: variability in qualities and models of decay class dynamics. For Ecol Manag 260:770–779Google Scholar
  2. Aho PE, Seidler RJ, Evans HJ, Raju PN (1974) Distribution, enumeration, and identification of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with decay in living white fir trees. Phytopathology 64:1413–1420Google Scholar
  3. Amburgey TL (1979) Review and checklist of the literature on interaction between wood-inhabiting fungi and subterranean termites: 1960–1978. Sociobiology 4:279–296Google Scholar
  4. Amirta R, Tanabe T, Watanabe T, Honda Y, Kuwahara M, Watanabe T (2006) Methane fermentation of Japanese cedar wood pretreated with a white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. J Biotechnol 123:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Antos JA, Parish R (2002) Structure and dynamics of a nearly steady-state subalpine forest in south-central British Columbia, Canada. Oecologia 130:126–135Google Scholar
  6. Araya K (1993a) Relationship between the decay types of dead wood and occurrence of lucanid beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Appl Entomol Zool 28:27–33Google Scholar
  7. Araya K (1993b) Chemical analysis of the dead wood eaten by the larvae of Ceruchus lignarius and Prismognathus angularis. Appl Entomol Zool 28:353–358Google Scholar
  8. Bače R, Svoboda M, Pouska V, Janda P, Červenka J (2012) Natural regeneration in Central-European subalpine spruce forests: which logs are suitable seedling recruitment? For Ecol Manag 266:254–262Google Scholar
  9. Bader P, Jansson S, Jonsson BG (1995) Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratum decline in selectively logged boreal spruce forests. Biol Conserv 72:355–362Google Scholar
  10. Barker JS (2008) Decomposition on Douglas-fir coarse woody debris in response to differing moisture content and initial heterotrophic colonization. For Ecol Manag 255:598–604Google Scholar
  11. Baum S, Sieber TN, Schwarze FWMR, Fink S (2003) Latent infections of Fomes fomentarius in the xylem of European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Mycol Progress 2:141–148Google Scholar
  12. Bending GD, Friloux M, Walker A (2002) Degradation of contrasting pesticides by white rot fungi and its relationship with ligninolytic potential. FEMS Microbiol Lett 212:59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg B, McClaugherty C (2003) Plant litter: decomposition, humus formation, carbon sequestration. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Boddy L (1991) Importance of wood decay fungi in forest ecosystems. In: Arora DK, Rai B, Mukerji KG, Knudsen GR (eds) Handbook of applied mycology. Vol. 1: soil and plants. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 507–539Google Scholar
  15. Boddy L, Watkinson SC (1995) Wood decomposition, higher fungi, and their role in nutrient redistribution. Can J Bot 73:1377–1383Google Scholar
  16. Bradshaw CJA, Warkentin IG, Sodhi NS (2009) Urgent preservation of boreal carbon stocks and biodiversity. Trends in Ecol Evol 24:541–548Google Scholar
  17. Brown S, Mo J, McPherson JK, Bell DT (1996) Decomposition of woody debris in Western Australian forests. Can J For Res 26:954–966Google Scholar
  18. Bunnell FL, Houde I (2010) Down wood and biodiversity—implications to forest practices. Environ Rev 18:397–421Google Scholar
  19. Bütler R, Patty L, Bayon R-CL, Guenat C, Schlaepfer R (2007) Log decay of Picea abies in the Swiss Jura Mountains of central Europe. For Ecol Manag 242:791–799Google Scholar
  20. Carmona MR, Armesto JJ, Aravena JC, Perez CA (2002) Coarse woody debris biomass in successional and primary temperate forests in Chiloe Island, Chile. For Ecol Manag 164:265–275Google Scholar
  21. Christensen O (1984) The states of decay of wood litter determined by relative density. Oikos 42:211–219Google Scholar
  22. Clark DF, Kneeshaw DD, Burton PJ, Antos JA (1998) Coarse woody debris in sub-boreal spruce forests of west-central British Columbia. Can J For Res 28:284–290Google Scholar
  23. Conner RN, Locke BA (1982) Fungi and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees. Wilson Bull 94:64–70Google Scholar
  24. Cornelius ML, Daigle DJ, Connick WJ, Parker A, Wunch K (2002) Responses of Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to three types of wood rot fungi cultured on different substrates. J Econ Entomol 95:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cornwell WK, Cornelissen JHC, Allison SD, Bauhus J, Eggleton P, Preston CM, Scarfe F, Weedon JT, Wirth C, Zanne AE (2009) Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed? Glob Chang Biol 15:2431–2449Google Scholar
  26. Davey ML, Heimdal R, Ohlson M, Kauserud H (2013) Host- and tissue-specificity of moss-associated Galerina and Mycena determined from amplicon pyrosequencing data. Fungal Ecol 6:179–186Google Scholar
  27. Doi Y, Mori AS, Takeda H (2008a) Conifer establishment and root architectural responses to forest floor heterogeneity in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manag 255:1472–1478Google Scholar
  28. Doi Y, Mori AS, Takeda H (2008b) Adventitious root formation of two Abies species on log and soil in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. J For Res 13:190–195Google Scholar
  29. Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356Google Scholar
  30. Eaton RA, Hale MDC (1993) Wood: decay, pests and protection. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  31. Editorial committee of “forest soil of Japan” (1983) Forest soil of Japan. Forestry technological society of Japan, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  32. Enoki A, Tanaka H, Fuse G (1988) Degradation of lignin-related compounds, pure cellulose, and wood components by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Holzforschung 42:85–93Google Scholar
  33. Frangi JL, Richter LL, Barrera MD, Aloggia M (1997) Decomposition of Nothofagus fallen woody debris in forests of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Can J For Res 27:1095–1102Google Scholar
  34. Franklin JF, Maeda T, Ohsumi Y, Matsui M, Yagi H (1979) Subalpine coniferous forests of central Honshu. Jpn Ecol Monogr 49:311–334Google Scholar
  35. French JRJ, Robinson PJ, Thornton JD, Saunders IW (1981) Termite-fungi interactions. II. Response of Coptotermes acinaciformis to fungus-decayed softwood blocks. Mater Org 16:1–14Google Scholar
  36. Fukasawa Y (2012) Effects of wood decomposer fungi on tree seedling establishment on coarse woody debris. For Ecol Manag 266:232–238Google Scholar
  37. Fukasawa Y, Osono T, Takeda H (2005) Decomposition of Japanese beech wood by diverse fungi isolated from a cool temperate deciduous forest. Mycoscience 46:97–101Google Scholar
  38. Fukasawa Y, Osono T, Takeda H (2009a) Dynamics of physicochemical properties and occurrence of fungal fruit bodies during decomposition of coarse woody debris of Fagus crenata. J For Res 14:20–29Google Scholar
  39. Fukasawa Y, Osono T, Takeda H (2009b) Microfungus communities of Japanese beech logs at different stages of decay in a cool temperate deciduous forest. Can J For Res 39:1606–1614Google Scholar
  40. Fukasawa Y, Osono T, Takeda H (2012) Fungal decomposition of woody debris of Castanopsis sieboldii in a subtropical old-growth forest. Ecol Res 27:211–218Google Scholar
  41. Ganjegunte GK, Condron LM, Clinton PW, Davis MR, Mahieu N (2004) Decomposition and nutrient release from Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) coarse woody debris. For Ecol Manag 187:197–211Google Scholar
  42. Grove SJ (2001) Extent and composition of dead wood in Australian lowland tropical rainforest with different management histories. For Ecol Manag 154:35–53Google Scholar
  43. Hale CM, Pastor J, Rusterholz KA (1999) Comparison of structural and compositional characteristics in old-growth and mature, managed hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Can J For Res 29:1479–1489Google Scholar
  44. Harmon ME, Franklin JF, Swanson FJ, Sollins P, Gregory SV, Lattin JD, Anderson NH, Cline SP, Aumen NG, Sedell JR, Lienkaemper GW, Cromack K, Cummins KW (1986) Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems. Adv Ecol Res 15:133–302Google Scholar
  45. Harmon ME, Sexton J, Caldwell BA, Carpenter SE (1994) Fungal sporocarp mediated losses of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, P, and Zn from conifer logs in the early stages of decomposition. Can J For Res 24:1883–1893Google Scholar
  46. Hasegawa M (1997) Changes in Collembola and Cryptostigmata communities during the decomposition of pine needles. Pedobiologia 41:225–241Google Scholar
  47. Høiland K, Bendiksen E (1997) Biodiversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a boreal coniferous forest in Sor-Trondelag County, Central Norway. Nord J Bot 16:643–659Google Scholar
  48. Hongo T (1994) Kinoko. In: Yama-Kei field books, vol. 10. Yama-kei, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  49. Hope SM (1987) Classification of decayed Abies amabilis logs. Can J For Res 17:559–564Google Scholar
  50. Imazeki R, Hongo T (1989) Colored illustrations of mushrooms of Japan, vol 2. Hoikusha, Osaka (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  51. Jackson JA, Jackson BJS (2004) Ecological relationships between fungi and woodpecker cavity sites. Condor 106:37–49Google Scholar
  52. Jankovský L, Vágner A, Apltauer J (2002) The decomposition of wood mass under conditions of climax spruce stands and related mycoflora in the Krkonoše Mountains. J For Sci 48:70–79Google Scholar
  53. Jomura M, Kominami Y, Tamai K, Miyama T, Goto Y, Dannoura M, Kanazawa Y (2007) The carbon budget of coarse woody debris in a temperate broad-leaved secondary forest in Japan. Tellus 59B:211–222Google Scholar
  54. Jomura M, Kominami Y, Dannoura M, Kanazawa Y (2008) Spatial variation in respiration from coarse woody debris in a temperate secondary broad-leaved forest in Japan. For Ecol Manag 255:149–155Google Scholar
  55. Jurgensen MF, Larsen MJ, Wolosiewicz M, Harvey AE (1989) A comparison of dinitrogen fixation rates in wood litter decayed by white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Plant Soil 115:117–122Google Scholar
  56. Kaila L, Martikainen P, Punttila P, Yakovlev E (1994) Saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) on dead birch trunks decayed by different polypore species. Ann Zool Fenn 31:97–107Google Scholar
  57. Karjalainen L, Kuuluvainen T (2002) Amount and diversity of coarse woody debris within a boreal forest landscape dominated by Pinus sylvestris in Vienansalo wilderness, eastern Fennoscandia. Silv Fenn 36:147–167Google Scholar
  58. Kato J, Hayashi I (2006) Quantitative analysis of a stand of Pinus densiflora undergoing succession to Quercus mongolica ssp. crispura: I. A 31-year record of growth and population dynamics of the canopy trees. Ecol Res 21:503–509Google Scholar
  59. Kim R-H, Son Y, Hwang J (2004) Comparison of mass and nutrient dynamic of coarse woody debris between Quercus serrata and Q. variabilis stands in Yangpyeong. Korean J Ecol 27:115–120Google Scholar
  60. Kim R-H, Son Y, Lim JH, Lee IK, Seo KW, Koo JW, Noh NJ, Ryu S-R, Hong SK, Ihm BS (2006) Coarse woody debris mass and nutrients in forest ecosystems of Korea. Ecol Res 21:819–827Google Scholar
  61. King HGC, Heath GW (1967) The chemical analysis of small samples of leaf material and the relationship between the disappearance and composition of leaves. Pedobiologia 7:192–197Google Scholar
  62. Kirker GT, Wagner TL, Diehl SV (2012) Relationship between wood-inhabiting fungi and Reticulitermes spp. in four forest habitats of northeastern Mississippi. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 72:18–25Google Scholar
  63. Komiyama A, Ito T, Kawai M (1985) Vegetation dynamics of subalpine forest on Mt. Ontake (XV): distribution of forest type and above-ground biomass. Res Bull Fac Agric Gifu Univ 50:435–442 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  64. Krankina ON, Harmon ME, Kukuev YA, Treyfeld RF, Kashpor NN, Kresnov VG, Skudin VM, Protasov NA, Yatskov N, Spycher G, Povarov ED (2002) Coarse woody debris in forest regions of Russia. Can J For Res 32:768–778Google Scholar
  65. Kruys N, Fries C, Jonsson BG, Lamas T, Stahl G (1999) Wood-inhabiting cryptogams on dead Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees in managed Swedish boreal forests. Can J For Res 29:178–186Google Scholar
  66. Kueppers LM, Southon J, Baer P, Harte J (2004) Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient. Oecologia 141:641–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Laiho R, Prescott CE (2004) Decay and nutrient dynamics of coarse woody debris in northern coniferous forests: a synthesis. Can J For Res 34:763–777Google Scholar
  68. Lambert RL, Lang GE, Reiners WA (1980) Loss of mass and chemical change in decaying boles of a subalpine balsam fir forest. Ecology 61:1460–1473Google Scholar
  69. Lindblad I (1998) Wood-inhabiting fungi on fallen logs of Norway spruce: relations to forest management and substrate quality. Nord J Bot 18:243–255Google Scholar
  70. Lindner DL, Vasaitis R, Kubartova A, Allmer J, Johannesson H, Banik MT, Stenlid J (2011) Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 year after inoculation. Fungal Ecol 4:449–460Google Scholar
  71. Lipan Y, Wenyao L, Wenzhang M (2008) Woody debris stocks in different secondary and primary forests in the subtropical Ailao Mountains, southwest China. Ecol Res 23:805–812Google Scholar
  72. Matsumoto T, Tokimoto K (1992) Quantitative changes of mineral elements in bedlogs of Lentinula edodes during fruiting body development. Res Rep Tottori Mycol Inst 30:75–82Google Scholar
  73. Matsuo H, Nishimoto K (1976) Response of the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki to extracts from fungus-infected and delignified fungus-infected woods. Wood Res 59(60):40–48Google Scholar
  74. McCarthy BC, Bailey RR (1994) Distribution and abundance of coarse woody debris in a managed forest landscape of the central Appalachians. Can J For Res 24:1317–1329Google Scholar
  75. McGee G, Leopold DJ, Nyland RD (1999) Structural characteristics of old-growth, maturing, and partially cut northern hardwood forests. Ecol Appl 9:1316–1329Google Scholar
  76. Means JE, MacMillan PC, Cromack K Jr (1992) Biomass and nutrient content of Douglas-fir logs and other detrital pools in an old-growth forest, Oregon, USA. Can J For Res 22:1536–1546Google Scholar
  77. Mittelbach GG (2012) Community ecology. Sinauer Associates Inc., SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  78. Moore D, Gange AC, Gange EG, Boddy L (2008) Fruit bodies: their production and development in relation to environment. In: Boddy L, Frankland JC, van West P (eds) Ecology of saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Academic Press, London, pp 79–103Google Scholar
  79. Mori AS, Komiyama A (2008) Differential survival among life stages contributes to co-dominance of Abies mariesii and Abies veitchii in a sub-alpine old-growth forest. J Veg Sci 19:239–244Google Scholar
  80. Mori A, Takeda H (2004) Effects of undisturbed canopy structure on population structure and species coexistence in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manag 200:89–100Google Scholar
  81. Mori A, Mizumachi E, Osono T, Doi Y (2004) Substrate-associated seedling recruitment and establishment of major conifer species in an old-growth subalpine forest in central Japan. For Ecol Manag 196:287–297Google Scholar
  82. Mori AS, Fukasawa Y, Takeda H (2008) Tree mortality and habitat shifts in the regeneration trajectory underneath canopy of an old-growth subalpine forest. For Ecol Manag 255:3758–3767Google Scholar
  83. Nishioka M, Kirita H (1978) Litterfall. JIBP Synth 18:231–238Google Scholar
  84. Olajuyigbe SO, Tobin B, Gardiner P, Nieuwenhuis M (2011) Stocks and decay dynamics of above- and belowground coarse woody debris in managed Sitka spruce forests in Ireland. For Ecol Manag 262:1109–1118Google Scholar
  85. Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 403–430Google Scholar
  86. Olson TS (1963) Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322–331Google Scholar
  87. Osono T (2006) Role of phyllosphere fungi of forest trees in the development of decomposer fungal communities and decomposition processes of leaf litter. Can J Microbiol 52:701–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Osono T, Takeda H (2001) Organic chemical and nutrient dynamics in decomposing beech leaf litter in relation to fungal ingrowth and succession during 3-year decomposition processes in a cool temperate deciduous forest in Japan. Ecol Res 16:649–670Google Scholar
  89. Osono T, Takeda H (2004) Potassium, calcium, and magnesium dynamics during litter decomposition in a cool temperate forest. J For Res 9:23–31Google Scholar
  90. Osono T, Takeda H (2006) Fungal decomposition of Abies needle and Betula leaf litter. Mycologia 98:172–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Osono T, Takeda H (2007) Microfungi associated with Abies needles and Betula leaf litter in a subalpine coniferous forest. Can J Microbiol 53:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pandey KK, Pitman AJ (2003) FTIR studies of the changes in wood chemistry following decay by brown-rot and white-rot fungi. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 52:151–160Google Scholar
  93. Preston CM, Sollins P, Sayer BG (1990) Changes in organic components of fallen logs in old-growth Douglas-fir forests monitored by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Can J For Res 20:1382–1391Google Scholar
  94. Preston CM, Trofymow JA, Sayer BG, Niu J (1997) 13CPMAS NMR investigation of the proximate analysis of fractions used to assess litter quality in decomposition studies. Can J Bot 75:1601–1613Google Scholar
  95. Preston CM, Trofymow JA, Niu J, Fyfe CA (1998) 13CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of coarse woody debris in coastal forests of Vancouver Island. For Ecol Manag 111:51–68Google Scholar
  96. Progar RA, Schowalter TD, Freitag CM, Morrell JJ (2000) Respiration from coarse woody debris as affected by moisture and saprotroph functional diversity in Western Oregon. Oecologia 124:426–431Google Scholar
  97. Rajala T, Peltoniemi M, Hantula J, Mäkipää R, Pennanen T (2011) RNA reveals a succession of active fungi during the decay of Norway spruce logs. Fungal Ecol 4:437–448Google Scholar
  98. Rajala T, Peltoniemi M, Pennanen T, Mäkipää R (2012) Fungal community dynamics in relation to substrate quality of decaying Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] logs in boreal forests. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 81:494–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ranuis T, Kindvall O, Kruys N, Gunner Jonsson B (2003) Modelling dead wood in Norway spruce stands subject to different management regimes. For Ecol Manag 182:13–29Google Scholar
  100. Renvall P (1995) Community structure and dynamics of wood-rotting Basidiomycetes on decomposing conifer trunks northern Finland. Karstenia 35:1–51Google Scholar
  101. Schowalter TD (1992) Heterogeneity of decomposition and nutrient dynamics of oak (Quercus) logs during the first 2 years of decomposition. Can J For Res 22:161–166Google Scholar
  102. Schowalter TD, Zhang YL, Sabin TE (1998) Decomposition and nutrient dynamics of oak Quercus spp. logs after five years of decomposition. Ecography 21:3–10Google Scholar
  103. Shirokawa S (1994) Pictorial book of bracket fungi. Chikyusya, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  104. Siitonen J, Martikainen P, Punttila P, Rauh J (2000) Coarse woody debris and stand characteristics in mature managed and old-growth boreal mesic forests in southern Finland. For Ecol Manag 128:211–225Google Scholar
  105. Sippola A-L, Renvall P (1999) Wood-decomposing fungi and seed-tree cutting: a 40-year perspective. For Ecol Manag 115:183–201Google Scholar
  106. Sippola A-L, Siitonen J, Kallio R (1998) Amount and quality of coarse woody debris in natural and managed coniferous forests near the timberline in Finnish Lapland. Scand J For Res 13:204–214Google Scholar
  107. Sippola A-L, Lehesvirta T, Renvall P (2001) Effects of selective logging on coarse woody debris and diversity of wood-decaying polypores in eastern Finland. Ecol Bull 49:243–254Google Scholar
  108. Sollins P (1982) Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Can J For Res 12:18–28Google Scholar
  109. Son E, Kim J–J, Lim YW, Au-Yeung TT, Yang CYH, Breuil C (2011) Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle. Can J Microbiol 57:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Souza CGM, Peralta RM (2003) Purification and characterization of the main laccase produced by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus pulmonarius on wheat bran solid state medium. J Basic Microbiol 43:278–286Google Scholar
  111. Spies TA, Franklin JF, Thomas TB (1988) Coarse woody debris in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon and Washington. Ecology 69:1689–1702Google Scholar
  112. Stevenson FJ (1982) Humus chemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  113. Stoytchev I, Nerud F (2000) Ligninolytic enzyme complex of Armillaria spp. Folia Microbiol 45:248–250Google Scholar
  114. Sturtevant BR, Bissonette JA, Long JN, Roberts DW (1997) Coarse woody debris as a function of age, stand structure, and disturbance in boreal Newfoundland. Ecol Appl 7:702–712Google Scholar
  115. Takami Y, Miura K (1991) Characterizations of the strains of basidiomycetes with Bavendamm’s reaction. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 37:656–660Google Scholar
  116. Tanesaka E, Masuda H, Kinugawa K (1993) Wood degrading ability of basidiomycetes that are wood decomposers, litter decomposers, or mycorrhizal symbionts. Mycologia 85:347–354Google Scholar
  117. Tedersoo L, Suvi T, Jairus T, Koljalg U (2008) Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula. Environ Microbiol 10:1189–1201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Temnuhin VB (1996) Preliminary quantitative estimation of wood decomposition by fungi in a Russian temperate pine forest. For Ecol Manag 81:249–257Google Scholar
  119. Ter-Mikaelian M, Colombo SJ, Chen J (2008) Amount of downed woody debris and its prediction using stand characteristics in boreal and mixedwood forests of Ontario, Canada. Can J For Res 38:2189–2197Google Scholar
  120. Tian X, Takeda H, Ando T (1997) Application of a rapid thin section method for observations on decomposing litter in mor humus form in subalpine coniferous forest. Ecol Res 12:289–300Google Scholar
  121. Tian X, Takeda H, Azuma J (2000) Dynamics of organic-chemical components in leaf litters during a 3.5-year decomposition. Eur J Soil Biol 36:81–89Google Scholar
  122. Tsujiyama S, Nakano N (1996) Distribution of acetyl esterase in wood-rotting fungi. Mycoscience 37:289–294Google Scholar
  123. Wallace HR (1953) The ecology of the insect fauna of pine stumps. J Anim Ecol 22:154–171Google Scholar
  124. Waller DA, Fage JPL, Gilbertson RL, Blackwell M (1987) Wood-decay fungi associated with subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae) in Louisiana. Proc Entomol Soc Washington 89:417–424Google Scholar
  125. Wardlaw T, Grove S, Hopkins A, Yee M, Harrison K, Mohammed C (2009) The uniqueness of habitat in old eucalypts: contrasting wood-decay fungi and saproxylic beetles of young and old eucalypts. Tasforests 18:17–32Google Scholar
  126. Yamaguchi H, Nishio S (1995) Water surrounding Jomon-sugi, a mysterious cedar tree growing in Yakushima Island for 7200 years. Dobokugakkaishi 80:69–86 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  127. Yan E-R, Wang X-H, Huang J–J, Zeng F-R, Gong L (2007) Long-lasting legacy of forest succession and forest management: characteristics of coarse woody debris in an evergreen broad-leaved forest of Eastern China. For Ecol Manag 252:98–107Google Scholar
  128. Yang F–F, Li Y-L, Zhou G-Y, Wenigmann KO, Zhang D-Q, Wenigmann M, Liu S-Z, Zhang Q-M (2010) Dynamics of coarse woody debris and decomposition rates in an old-growth forest in lower tropic China. For Ecol Manag 259:1666–1672Google Scholar
  129. Yin X (1999) The decay of forest woody debris: numerical modeling and implications based on some 300 data cases from North America. Oecologia 121:81–98Google Scholar
  130. Yoneda T (1975) Studies on the rate of decay of wood litter on the forest floor. 1. Some physical properties of decaying wood. Jap J Ecol 25:40–46Google Scholar
  131. Yoneda T (1982) Turnover of live and dead woody organs in forest ecosystems—an assessment based on the changes in the frequency distribution of their diameter (studies on the rate of decay of wood litter on the forest floor. IV). Jap J Ecol 32:333–346Google Scholar
  132. Yoneda Y (1985) Relation of wood diameter to the rates of dry weight loss and CO2 evolution of wood litter in evergreen oak forests (studies on the rate of decay of wood litter on the forest floor, 5). Jap J Ecol 35:57–66Google Scholar
  133. Yoon TK, Chung H, Kim R-H, Noh NJ, Seo KW, Lee SK, Jo W, Son Y (2011) Coarse woody debris mass dynamics in temperate natural forests of Mt. Jumbong, Korea. J Ecol Field Biol 34:115–125Google Scholar
  134. Yoon TK, Han S, Lee D, Han SH, Noh NJ, Son Y (2014) Effects of sample size and temperature on coarse woody debris respiration from Quercus variabilis logs. J For Res. doi: 10.1007/10310-013-0412-3
  135. Zhou L, Dai L, Wang S, Huang X, Wang X, Qi L, Wang Q, Li G, Wei Y, Shao G (2011) Changes in carbon density for three old-growth forests on Changbai Mountain, Northeast China: 1981–2010. Ann For Sci 68:953–958Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yu Fukasawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shingo Katsumata
    • 1
  • Akira S. Mori
    • 1
  • Takashi Osono
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Takeda
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agricultural ScienceTohoku UniversityOsakiJapan

Personalised recommendations