Plant responses to heterogeneous environments: scaling from shoot modules and whole-plant functions to ecosystem processes
- 157 Downloads
Plant individuals are characterized by modular architecture, consisting of hierarchically positioned similar basic semi-autonomous units termed “modules” that have species- and plant functional-type-specific morphological and physiological characteristics (White 1979; Harper 1985; Silvertown and Gordon 1989; Prusinkiewicz 2000; Kawamura 2010). The basic units underlying the modular organization can be buds, metamers, shoots, branches, or ramets depending on plant functional type (Barthélémy and Caraglio 2007; Kawamura 2010). The plants exhibit a characteristic acclimation “behavior” by changing the size, shape, number, and within-plant arrangement of such modular units in response to variation in local distribution and availability of resources required. Although the degree of plastic changes of the module attributes is genetically and mechanically restricted, module-level plasticity plays a key role in whole-plant acclimation to local resource heterogeneity (White 1979; Silvertown...
KeywordsPhenotypic Plasticity Carbon Gain Plant Functional Type Functional Diversification Resource Capture
We are grateful to Dr. Kouki Hikosaka and to all anonymous reviewers for their invaluable and insightful comments on all manuscripts in this special issue.
- Harper JL (1985) Modules, branches, and the capture of resources. In: Jackson JBC, Buss LW, Cook RE (eds) Population biology, evolution of clonal organisms. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 1–33Google Scholar
- Ishii H, Asano S (2010) The role of crown architecture, leaf phenology and photosynthetic activity in promoting complementary use of light among coexisting species in temperate forests. Ecol Res. doi: 10.1007/s11284-009-0668-4
- Kawamura K (2010) A conceptual framework for the study of modular responses to local environmental heterogeneity within the plant crown and a review of related concepts. Ecol Res. doi: 10.1007/s11284-009-0688-0
- Kennedy MC (2010) Functional-structural models optimize the placement of foliage units for multiple whole-canopy functions. Ecol Res. doi: 10.1007/s11284-009-0658-6
- Mori AS, Hasegawa SF (2007) Structural characteristics of Abies mariesii saplings in a snowy subalpine parkland in central Japan. Tree Physiol 26:141–148Google Scholar
- Niinemets Ü (2010) A review of light interception in plant stands from leaf to canopy in different plant functional types and in species with varying shade tolerance. Ecol Res. doi: 10.1007/s11284-010-0712-4