Ecological Research

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 521–531

Complexity, dynamics and diversity of sociality in group-living mammals

MIYADI AWARD
  • 501 Downloads

Abstract

Numerous studies in group-living animals with stable compositions have demonstrated the complex and dynamic nature of social behaviour. Empirical studies occasionally provide principles that cannot be applied directly to other group-living species. Because of this, researchers are required to address fine-scaled conceptual questions and to incorporate species-specific characteristics of the study species. In this paper, I raise three key topics that will promote our understanding of animal sociality: the effects of heterogeneous social relationships on the pattern, distribution, and function of social interactions; conflict management for maintaining group living; and meta-dyad-level perspectives for understanding dyadic social relationships and behaviours. Through the discussion of these topics together with examples of group-living mammals, I emphasise the importance of direct behavioural observations and functional analyses in studies of species- or taxonomic-group-specific characteristics of social behaviour in a wide range of taxonomic groups. In addition to approaches focusing on specificity, another approach that examines the general principles or common characteristics found across different taxonomic groups could provide synthetic and reductive frameworks to understand divergent sociality. The complementary use of these two approaches will offer a comprehensive understanding of social evolution in group-living animals.

Keywords

Sociality Social relationship Group living Mammals Social diversity 

References

  1. Arnold KE, Owens IPF (1998) Cooperative breeding in birds: a comparative test of the life history hypothesis. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 265:739–745. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0355 Google Scholar
  2. Arnold KE, Owens IPF (1999) Cooperative breeding in birds: the role of ecology. Behav Ecol 10:465–471. doi:10.1093/beheco/10.5.465 Google Scholar
  3. Arnold K, Aureli F (2006) Postconflict reconciliation. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Panger M, Bearder SK (eds) Primates in perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 592–608Google Scholar
  4. Aureli F (1997) Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: the mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggress Behav 23:315–328. doi :10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1997)23:5<315::AID-AB2>3.0.CO;2-HGoogle Scholar
  5. Aureli F, Cords M, van Schaik CP (2002) Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: a predictive framework. Anim Behav 64:325–343. doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3071 Google Scholar
  6. Aureli F, Cozzolino R, Cordischi C, Scucchi S (1992) Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: an expression of a revenge system? Anim Behav 44:283–291. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(92)90034-7 Google Scholar
  7. Aureli F, de Waal FBM (2000) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  8. Backwell PRY, Jennions MD (2004) Coalition among male fiddler crabs. Nature 430:417. doi:10.1038/430417a
  9. Barrett L, Henzi SP (2006) Monkeys, markets and minds: biological markets and primate sociality. In: Kappeler PM, van Schaik CP (eds) Cooperation in primates and humans: mechanisms and evolution. Springer, Berlin, pp 209–232Google Scholar
  10. Blumstein DT, Armitage KB (1998) Life history consequences of social complexity: a comparative study of ground-dwelling sciurids. Behav Ecol 9:8–19. doi:10.1093/beheco/9.1.8 Google Scholar
  11. van den Bos R (1998) Post-conflict stress response in confined group-living cats (Felis silvestris catus). Appl Anim Behav Sci 59:323–330. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(98)00147-6 Google Scholar
  12. Bshary R (2001) The cleaner fish market. In: Noë R, van Hooff JARAM, Hammerstein P (eds) Economics in nature: social dilemmas, mate choice and biological markets. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 146–172Google Scholar
  13. Cameron EZ, du Toit JT (2005) Social influences on vigilance behaviour in giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis. Anim Behav 69:1337–1344. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.08.015 Google Scholar
  14. Cant MA, English S, Reeve HK, Field J (2006) Escalated conflict in a social hierarchy. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 273:2977–2984. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3669 Google Scholar
  15. Caro T (2005) Antipredator defenses in birds and mammals. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM (1986) The recognition of social alliances by vervet monkeys. Anim Behav 34:1722–1731. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(86)80259-7 Google Scholar
  17. Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM (1989) Redirected aggression and reconciliation among vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops. Behaviour 110:258–275. doi:10.1163/156853989X00501 Google Scholar
  18. Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM (1990) How monkeys see the world: inside the mind of another species. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM (2007) Baboon metaphysics: the evolution of a social mind. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  20. Clutton-Brock TH (2002) Breeding together: kin selection and mutualism in cooperative vertebrates. Science 296:69–72. doi:10.1126/science.296.5565.69 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Clutton-Brock TH, Russell AF, Sharpe LL, Brotherton PNM, McIlrath GM, White S et al (2001) Effects of helpers on juvenile development and survival in meerkats. Science 293:2446–2449. doi:10.1126/science.1061274 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clutton-Brock TH, Hodge SJ, Spong G, Russell AF, Jordan NR, Bennett NC, Sharpe LL, Manser MB (2006) Intrasexual competition and sexual selection in cooperative mammals. Nature 444:1065–1068. doi:10.1038/nature05386 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Colmenares F, Hofer H, East ML (2000) Greeting ceremonies in baboons and hyenas. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 94–96Google Scholar
  24. Conradt L, Roper TJ (2005) Consensus decision making in animals. Trends Ecol Evol 20:449–456. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.05.008 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cools AKA, van Hout AJM, Nelissen MHJ (2008) Canine reconciliation and third-party-initiated postconflict affiliation: do peacemaking social mechanisms in dogs rival those of higher primates? Ethology 113:53–63Google Scholar
  26. Cordoni G, Palagi E (2008) Reconciliation in wolves (Canis lupus): new evidence for a comparative perspective. Ethology 114:298–308. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2008.01474.x Google Scholar
  27. Das M (2000) Conflict management via third parties: post-conflict affiliation of the aggressor. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 263–280Google Scholar
  28. Dugatkin LE (1997) Cooperation among animals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. Emery NJ, Seed AM, von Bayern AM, Clayton NS (2007) Cognitive adaptations to social bonding in birds. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:489–505. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1991 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Emlen ST (1997) Predicting family dynamics in social vertebrates. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach, 4th edn. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 228–253Google Scholar
  31. Engh AL, Siebert ER, Greenberg DA, Holekamp KE (2005) Patterns of alliance formation and post-conflict aggression indicate spotted hyenas recognize third party relationships. Anim Behav 69:209–217. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.04.013 Google Scholar
  32. Flack JC, de Waal F (2007) Context modulates signal meaning in primate communication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1581–1586. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603565104 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Flack JC, Girvan M, de Waal FBM, Krakauer DC (2006) Policing stabilizes construction of social niches in primates. Nature 439:426–429. doi:10.1038/nature04326 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Frank SA (1998) Foundations of social evolution. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraser ON, Stahl D, Aureli F (2008) Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:8557–8562. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804141105 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffin AS, West SA (2002) Kin selection: fact and fiction. Trends Ecol Evol 17:15–21. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(01)02355-2 Google Scholar
  37. Hamilton WD (1964) The genetical evolution of social behaviour I and II. J Theor Biol 7:1–16, 17–52. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(64)90038-4 Google Scholar
  38. Hatchwell BJ, Komdeur J (2000) Ecological constraints, life history traits and the evolution of cooperative breeding. Anim Behav 59:1079–1086. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1394 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (1992) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  40. Helms Cahan S, Blumstein DT, Sundström L, Liebig J, Griffin A (2002) Social trajectories and the evolution of social behavior. Oikos 96:206–216. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0706.2002.960202.x Google Scholar
  41. Hinde RA (1976) Interactions, relationships, and social structure. Man (Lond) 11:1–17. doi:10.2307/2800384 Google Scholar
  42. Hirsch BT (2002) Social monitoring and vigilance behavior in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 52:458–464. doi:10.1007/s00265-002-0536-5 Google Scholar
  43. Hoeksema JD, Schwartz MW (2001) Modelling interspecific mutualisms as biological markets. In: Kappeler PM, van Schaik CP (eds) Cooperation in primates and humans: mechanisms and evolution. Springer, Berlin, pp 173–183Google Scholar
  44. Isbell LA, Young TP (2002) Ecological models of female social relationships in primates: similarities, disparities, and some directions for future clarity. Behaviour 139:177–202. doi:10.1163/156853902760102645 Google Scholar
  45. Issa FA, Edwards DH (2006) Ritualized submission and the reduction of aggression in an invertebrate. Curr Biol 16:2217–2221. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.08.065 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnstone RA (2000) Models of reproductive skew: a review and synthesis. Ethology 106:5–26. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2000.00529.x Google Scholar
  47. Judge PG, Mullen SH (2005) Quadratic postconflict affiliation among bystanders in a hamadryas baboon group. Anim Behav 69:1345–1355. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.08.016 Google Scholar
  48. Kappeler PM (1993) Reconciliation and post-conflict behavior in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, and redfronted lemurs, Eulemur fulvus rufus. Anim Behav 45:901–915. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1110 Google Scholar
  49. Korb J, Heinze J (2008) Ecology of social evolution. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  50. Koski SE, Koops K, Sterck EHM (2007) Reconciliation, relationship quality and post-conflict anxiety: testing the integrated hypothesis in captive chimpanzees. Am J Primatol 69:158–172. doi:10.1002/ajp.20338 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Koski SE, Sterck EHM (2007) Triadic postconflict affiliation in captive chimpanzees: does consolation console? Anim Behav 73:133–142. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.04.009 Google Scholar
  52. Krause J, Croft DP, James R (2007) Social network theory in the behavioural sciences: potential applications. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:15–27. doi:10.1007/s00265-007-0445-8 Google Scholar
  53. Krause J, Ruxton GD (2002) Living in groups. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  54. Kutsukake N (2000) Matrilineal rank inheritance varies with absolute rank in Japanese macaques. Primates 41:321–335. doi:10.1007/BF02557601 Google Scholar
  55. Kutsukake N (2003) Assessing relationship quality and social anxiety among wild chimpanzees using self-directed behaviour. Behaviour 140:1153–1171. doi:10.1163/156853903322589687 Google Scholar
  56. Kutsukake N (2006) The context and quality of social relationships affect vigilance behaviour in wild chimpanzees. Ethology 112:581–591. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2006.01200.x Google Scholar
  57. Kutsukake N (2007) Conspecific influences on vigilance behaviour in wild chimpanzees. Int J Primatol 28:907–918. doi:10.1007/s10764-007-9156-2 Google Scholar
  58. Kutsukake N, Castles DL (2001) Reconciliation and variation in postconflict stress in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata): testing the integrated hypothesis. Anim Cogn 4:259–268. doi:10.1007/s10071-001-0119-2 Google Scholar
  59. Kutsukake N, Castles DL (2004) Reconciliation and post-conflict third-party affiliation among wild chimpanzees at the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates 45:157–165. doi:10.1007/s10329-004-0082-z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kutsukake N, Clutton-Brock TH (2006a) Aggression and submission reflect reproductive conflict between females in cooperatively breeding meerkats. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 59:541–548. doi:10.1007/s00265-005-0079-7 Google Scholar
  61. Kutsukake N, Clutton-Brock TH (2006b) Social function of allogrooming in cooperatively breeding meerkats. Anim Behav 72:1059–1068. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.02.016 Google Scholar
  62. Kutsukake N, Clutton-Brock TH (2008a) The number of subordinates moderates intra-sexual competition among males in cooperatively breeding meerkats. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 275:209–216. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1311 Google Scholar
  63. Kutsukake N, Clutton-Brock TH (2008b) Do meerkats engage in conflict management following aggression? Reconciliation, submission, and avoidance. Anim Behav 75:1441–1453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kutsukake N, Hasegawa T (2005) Dominance turnover between an alpha and a beta male and dynamics of social relationships in Japanese macaques. Int J Primatol 26:775–800. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-5308-4 Google Scholar
  65. Kutsukake N, Nunn CL (2006) Comparative tests of reproductive skew in male primates: the roles of demographic factors and incomplete control. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 60:695–706. doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0213-1 Google Scholar
  66. Kutsukake N, Nunn CL (2009) The causes and consequences of reproductive skew in male primates. In: Hager R, Jones CB (ed) Reproductive skew in vertebrates: proximate and ultimate factors. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press)Google Scholar
  67. Kutsukake N, Suetsugu N, Hasegawa T (2006) Pattern, distribution, and function of greeting behaviour among black-and-white colobus. Int J Primatol 27:1271–1291. doi:10.1007/s10764-006-9072-x Google Scholar
  68. Ligon JD, Burt DB (2004) Evolutionary origins. In: Koenig WD, Dickinson JL (eds) Ecology and evolution of cooperative breeding in birds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 5–34Google Scholar
  69. Lung MA, Childress MJ (2007) The influence of conspecifics and predation risk on the vigilance of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park. Behav Ecol 18:12–20. doi:10.1093/beheco/arl066 Google Scholar
  70. Maestripieri D, Schino G, Aureli F, Troisi A (1992) A modest proposal: displacement activities as an indicator of emotions in primates. Anim Behav 44:967–979. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80592-5 Google Scholar
  71. Marler P (1996) Social cognition: are primates smarter than birds? In: Nolan V, Ketterson ED (eds) Current ornithology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  72. Matsumura S, Hayden TJ (2006) When should signals of submission be given?-A game theory model. J Theor Biol 240:425–433. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.10.002 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Maynard Smith J (1964) Group selection and kin selection. Nature 201:1145–1147. doi:10.1038/2011145a0 Google Scholar
  74. Maynard Smith J, Szmathmáry E (1995) The major transitions in evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. McGregor PK (2005) Animal communication networks. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  76. Monclu’s R, Ro¨del HG (2008) Different forms of vigilance in response to the presence of predators and conspecifics in a group-living mammal, the European rabbit. Ethology 114:287–297. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2007.01463.x Google Scholar
  77. Noë R (1992) Alliance formation among male baboons: shopping for profitable partners. In: Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 285–321Google Scholar
  78. Noë R, Hammerstein P (1994) Biological markets: supply and demand determine the effect of partner choice in cooperation, mutualism and mating. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:1–11. doi:10.1007/BF00167053 Google Scholar
  79. Noë R, Hammerstein P (1995) Biological markets. Trends Ecol Evol 10:336–339. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(00)89123-5 Google Scholar
  80. Noë R, van Schaik CP, van Hooff JARAM (1991) The market effect: an explanation for pay-off asymmetries among collaborating animals. Ethology 87:97–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nishida T (1983) Alpha status and agonistic alliance in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Primates 24:318–336. doi:10.1007/BF02381978 Google Scholar
  82. Palagi E, Cordoni G, Tarli SB (2006) Possible roles of consolation in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Phys Anthropol 129:105–111. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20242 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Petit O, Thierry B (2000) Do impartial interventions occur in monkeys and apes. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 267–280Google Scholar
  84. Preuschoft S, van Schaik CP (2000) Dominance and communication: conflict management in various social settings. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 77–105Google Scholar
  85. Pusey AE, Packer C (1997) The ecology of relationships. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural ecology: an evolutionary approach, 4th edn. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 254–283Google Scholar
  86. Roeder JJ, Fornasieri I, Gosset D (2002) Conflict and postconflict behaviour in two lemur species with different social organizations (Eulemur fulvus and Eulemur macaco): a study on captive groups. Aggress Behav 28:62–74. doi:10.1002/ab.90006 Google Scholar
  87. Rolland N, Roeder JJ (2000) Do ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) reconcile in the hour post-conflict?: a pilot study. Primates 41:223–227. doi:10.1007/BF02557804 Google Scholar
  88. Romero T, Aureli F (2008) Reciprocity of support in coatis (Nasua nasua). J Comp Psychol 122:19–25. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.122.1.19 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Ross KG (2001) Molecular ecology of social behaviour: analyses of breeding systems and genetic structure. Mol Ecol 10:265–284. doi:10.1046/j.1365-294x.2001.01191.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Samuels A, Flaherty C (2000) Peaceful conflict resolution in the sea? In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, p 229Google Scholar
  91. Schaffner CM, Aureli F, Caine NG (2005) Following the rules: why small groups of tamarins do not reconcile conflicts. Folia Primatol (Basel) 76:67–76. doi:10.1159/000083614 Google Scholar
  92. Schaffner CM, Caine NG (2000) Peacefulness in cooperatively breeding primates. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 155–169Google Scholar
  93. Schaffner CM, French JA (1997) Group size and aggression: ‘recruitment incentives’ in a cooperatively breeding primate. Anim Behav 54:171–180. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0413 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. van Schaik CP (1983) Why are diurnal primates living in groups? Behaviour 87:120–144. doi:10.1163/156853983X00147 Google Scholar
  95. van Schaik CP (1989) The ecology of female social relationships. In: Standen V, Foley R (eds) Comparative socioecology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 195–218Google Scholar
  96. Schino G (1998) Reconciliation in domestic goats. Behaviour 135:343–356Google Scholar
  97. Schino G (2000) Beyond the primates—expanding the reconciliation horizon. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 225–242Google Scholar
  98. Scott J (2000) Social network analysis: a handbook, 2nd edn. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  99. Searcy WA, Nowicki S (2005) The evolution of animal communication: reliability and deception in signaling systems. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  100. Seed AM, Clayton NS, Emery NJ (2007) Postconflict third-party affiliation in rooks, Corvus frugilegus. Curr Biol 17:152–158. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2006.11.025 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Silk JB (2002) Using the “F” word in primatology. Behaviour 139:421–446. doi:10.1163/156853902760102735 Google Scholar
  102. Silk JB (2007) The adaptive value of sociality in mammalian groups. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 362:539–559. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1994 Google Scholar
  103. Sterck EHM, Watts DP, van Schaik CP (1997) The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:291–309. doi:10.1007/s002650050390 Google Scholar
  104. Stevens JMG, Vervaecke H, de Vries H, van Elsacker L (2005) Peering is not a formal indicator of submission in bonobos (Pan paniscus). Am J Primatol 65:255–267. doi:10.1002/ajp.20113 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Stopka P, Macdonald DW (1999) The market effect in the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus: selling information on reproductive status. Ethology 105:969–982. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.1999.00485.x Google Scholar
  106. Tamaki N, Morisaka T, Taki M (2006) Does body contact contribute towards repairing relationships? The association between flipper-rubbing and aggressive behavior in captive bottlenose dolphins. Behav Processes 73:209–215. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2006.05.010 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tibbetts EA (2002) Visual signals of individual identity in the wasp Polistes fuscatus. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 269:1423–1428. doi:10.1098/rspb.2002.2031 Google Scholar
  108. Treves A (2000) Theory and method in studies of vigilance and aggregation. Anim Behav 60:711–722. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1528 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ueda K, Wada K (1996) Allocleaning in an intertidal ocypodid crab, Macrophthalmus banzai. J Ethol 14:45–52. doi:10.1007/BF02350091 Google Scholar
  110. Vehrencamp SL (1983a) A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim Behav 31:667–682. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80222-X Google Scholar
  111. Vehrencamp SL (1983b) Optimal skew in cooperative societies. Am Zool 23:327–355Google Scholar
  112. de Waal FBM (1982) Chimpanzee politics—power and sex among apes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. de Waal FBM, van Roosmalen A (1979) Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5:55–66. doi:10.1007/BF00302695 Google Scholar
  114. de Waal FBM, Tyack PL (2003) Animal social complexity. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  115. Wahaj SA, Guse KR, Holekamp KE (2001) Reconciliation in spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Ethology 107:1057–1074. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2001.00717.x Google Scholar
  116. Watts DP, Colmenares F, Arnold K (2000) Redirection, consolation, and male policing: how targets of aggression interact with bystanders. In: Aureli F, de Waal FBM (eds) Natural conflict resolution. University of California Press, California, pp 281–301Google Scholar
  117. Weaver A (2003) Conflict and reconciliation in captive bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Mar Mamm Sci 19:836–846. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2003.tb01134.x Google Scholar
  118. West SA, Pen I, Griffin AS (2002) Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science 296:72–75. doi:10.1126/science.1065507 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Westlund K, Ljungberg T, Borefelt U, Abrahamsson C (2000) Post-conflict affiliation in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). Am J Primatol 52:31–46. doi:10.1002/1098-2345(200009)52:1&lt;31::AID-AJP3&gt;3.0.CO;2-Z PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Wey T, Blumstein D, Shen W, Jorda’n F (2008) Social network analysis of animal behaviour: a promising tool for the study of sociality. Anim Behav 75:333–344. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.06.020 Google Scholar
  121. Whitehead H (1997) Analysing animal social structure. Anim Behav 53:1053–1067. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0358 Google Scholar
  122. Whitehead H (2008) Analyzing animal societies: quantitative methods for vertebrate social analysis. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  123. Whitehead H, Dufault S (1999) Techniques for analyzing vertebrate social structure using identified individuals: review and recommendations. Adv Stud Behav 28:33–74. doi:10.1016/S0065-3454(08)60215-6 Google Scholar
  124. Whitham JC, Maestripieri D (2003) Primate rituals: the function of greetings between male guinea baboons. Ethology 109:847–859. doi:10.1046/j.0179-1613.2003.00922.x Google Scholar
  125. Wilson EO (1975) Sociobiology: the new synthesis. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  126. Wittig RM, Boesch C (2003) The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behaviour 140:1527–1559. doi:10.1163/156853903771980701 Google Scholar
  127. Young AJ, Carlson AA, Monfort SL, Russell AF, Bennett NC, Clutton-Brock T (2006) Stress and the suppression of subordinate reproduction in cooperatively breeding meerkats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:12005–12010. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510038103 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Evolutionary Studies of BiosystemsThe Graduate University for Advanced StudiesKanagawaJapan

Personalised recommendations