Temporal variation in CO2 efflux from soil and snow surfaces in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation, central Japan
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CO2 efflux from soil and snow surfaces was measured continuously in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) forest in central Japan using an open dynamic chamber system. The chamber opens and closes automatically and records measurements based on an open-flow dynamic method. Between May and December, mean soil CO2 efflux ranged from 1,529 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 in September to 255 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 in December. The seasonal change in CO2 efflux from the soil paralleled the seasonal pattern of soil temperature. No marked diurnal trends in soil CO2 efflux were observed on days without rainfall, whereas significant pulses in soil CO2 efflux were observed on days with rainfall. In this plantation, soil CO2 efflux frequently responded to rainfall. Measurements of changes from litter-covered soil to snow-covered surfaces revealed that CO2 efflux decreased from values of ca. 250 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 above soil to less than 33 mg CO2 m−2 h−1 above snow. Soil temperature alone explained 66% of the overall variation in soil CO2 efflux, but explained approximately 85% of the variation when data from two anomalous periods were excluded. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between soil CO2 efflux and soil moisture (which explained 44% of the overall variation) using a second-order polynomial function. Our results suggest that the seasonality of CO2 efflux is affected not only by soil temperature and moisture, but also by drying and rewetting cycles and by litterfall pulses.
KeywordsJapanese cedar plantation Q10 value Snow surface Soil moisture Soil temperature
We thank Mr. Sang-Uk Suh and Ms. Yuen-Keung Min of Kunkuk University, Dr. Minako Adachi of the National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, and Mr. Nobuhiro Sode, Mr. Ken Kurumado, and Mr. Yasunori Miyamoto of Gifu University for their assistance in the field. We also thank Dr. Taku M. Saito and Prof. Ichiro Tamagawa of Gifu University for providing the TDR and meteorological data. This study was supported financially by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) program of postdoctoral fellowship for foreign researchers and the 21st-Century Centers of Excellence (COE) program “Satellite Ecology” at Gifu University.
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