The potential role of polyploidy and hybridisation in the further evolution of the highly invasive Fallopia taxa in Europe
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Japanese knotweed s.l. comprises Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis, F. × bohemica and any F2s or backcrosses. The parental taxa were introduced from the East to the West as garden ornamentals in the nineteenth century, and soon spread beyond the confines of the garden to become widespread and persistent weeds. Since only female F. japonica var. japonica was introduced, its impressive spread has occurred solely by vegetative means. However, the initial lack of genetic variability has been complemented by an extensive series of hybridisations in the adventive range. We examine the history, spread, reproductive biology and ecological impact of these species in the West. The role and importance of polyploidy and hybridisation in their invasion of the West is discussed, as are the implications of these factors for the potential further evolution of the group.