Advertisement

Ecological Research

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 619–628 | Cite as

Linking stream habitats and spider distribution: spatial variations in trophic transfer across a forest–stream boundary

  • Tomoya Iwata
Original Article

Abstract

In headwater streams, many aquatic insects rely on terrestrial detritus, while their emergence from streams often subsidizes riparian generalist predators. However, spatial variations in such reciprocal trophic linkages remain poorly understood. The present study, conducted in a northern Japanese stream and the surrounding forest, showed that pool–riffle structure brought about heterogeneous distributions of detritus deposits and benthic aquatic insects. The resulting variations in aquatic insect emergence influenced the distributions of riparian web-building spiders. Pools with slow current stored greater amounts of detritus than riffles, allowing more benthic aquatic insects to develop in pools. The greater larval biomass in pools and greater tendency for riffle insects to drift into pools at metamorphosis resulted in an emergence rate of aquatic insects from pools that was some four to five times greater than from riffles. In the riparian forest, web-building spiders (Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae) were distributed in accordance with the emergence rates of aquatic insects, upon which both spider groups heavily depended. Consequently, the riparian strips bordering pools had a density of tetragnathid spiders that was twice as high as that of the riparian strips adjacent to riffles. Moreover, although limitations of vegetation structure prevented the aggregation of linyphiid spiders around pools, linyphiid density normalized by shrub density was higher in habitats adjacent to pools than those adjacent to riffles. The results indicated that stream geomorphology, which affects the storage of terrestrial organic material and the export of such material to riparian forests via aquatic insect emergence, plays a role in determining the strength of terrestrial–aquatic linkages in headwater ecosystems.

Keywords

Aquatic insects Pool–riffle sequence Reciprocal subsidies Riparian spiders Terrestrial detritus 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Jotaro Urabe for valuable comments on the manuscript, and also express my sincere thanks to Tadashi Ishii, Hitomi Asano, Keiko Ono and Chika Kato for their support during the study. I am indebted to Tsutomu Hiura, Masashi Murakami, Eitaro Wada, Naotoshi Kuhara and the staff and students of the Tomakomai Experimental Forests and Center for Ecological Research for their assistance. I dedicate this paper to my mentor, Dr. Shigeru Nakano, who was lost in a tragic boat accident in the Sea of Cortez in March 2000. This work could not be accomplished without his warm support and encouragement. This research was supported by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sport and Culture (Grant nos. 09NP1501 and 11440224).

References

  1. Angradi TR (1996) Inter-habitat variation in benthic community structure, function, and organic matter storage in 3 Appalachian headwater streams. J N Am Benthol Soc 15:42–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bilby RE, Likens GE (1980) Importance of organic debris dams in the structure and function of stream ecosystems. Ecology 61:1107–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bisson PA, Montgomery DR (1996) Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units. In: Hauer FR, Lamberti GA (eds) Methods in stream ecology. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 23–52Google Scholar
  4. Bisson PA, Nielsen JL, Palmason RA, Grove LE (1982) A system of naming habitat types in small streams, with examples of habitat utilization by salmonids during low stream flow. In: Armantrout NB (ed) Acquisition and utilization of aquatic habitat inventory information. Am Fish Soc, West Division, Bethesda, MD, pp 62–73Google Scholar
  5. Chikuni Y (1989) Pictorial encyclopedia of spiders in Japan. Kaiseisya, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  6. Finlay JC (2001) Stable-carbon-isotope ratios of river biota: implications for energy flow in lotic food webs. Ecology 82:1052–1064Google Scholar
  7. Frissell CA, Liss WJ, Warren CE, Hurley MD (1986) A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: viewing streams in a watershed context. Environ Manage 10:199–214Google Scholar
  8. Hall RO, Wallace JB, Eggert SL (2000) Organic matter flow in stream food webs with reduced detrital resource base. Ecology 81:3445–3463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Henschel JR, Mahsberg D, Stumpf H (2001) Allochthonous aquatic insect increase predation and decrease herbivory in river shore food webs. Oikos 93:429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huryn AD, Wallace JB (1987) Local geomorphology as a determinant of macrofaunal production in a mountain stream. Ecology 68:1932–1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Inoue M, Nakano S (1998) Effects of woody debris on the habitat of juvenile masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) in northern Japanese streams. Freshw Biol 40:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Iwata T, Nakano S, Murakami M (2003) Stream meanders increase insectivorous bird abundance in riparian deciduous forests. Ecography 26:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jackson JK, Fisher SG (1986) Secondary production, emergence, and export of aquatic insects of a Sonoran Desert stream. Ecology 67:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Janetos AC (1982) Foraging tactics of two guilds of web-spinning spiders. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 10:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kato C, Iwata T, Nakano S, Kishi D (2003) Dynamics of aquatic insect flux affects distribution of riparian web-building spiders. Oikos 103:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kato C, Iwata T, Wada E (2004) Prey use by web-building spiders: stable isotope analyses of trophic flow at a forest–stream ecotone. Ecol Res 19:633–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kawai T (1985) An illustrated book of aquatic insects of Japan (in Japanese). Tokyo University Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  18. Kishi C, Nakamura F, Inoue M (1999) Budgets and retention of leaf litter in Horonai Stream, southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Ecol 49:11–20Google Scholar
  19. Kohzu A, Kato C, Iwata T, Kishi D, Murakami M, Nakano S, Wada E (2004) Stream food web fueled by methane-derived carbon. Aquat Microb Ecol 36:189–194Google Scholar
  20. Kondo S, Hirabayashi K, Iwakuma T, Ueno R (2001) Yusurika no sekai (in Japanese). Baifukan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  21. Maridet L, Wasson JG, Philippe M, Amoros C, Naiman RJ (1998) Trophic structure of three streams with contrasting riparian vegetation and geomorphology. Arch Hydrobiol 144:61–85Google Scholar
  22. McIntosh BA, Sedell JR, Thurow RF, Clarke SE, Chandler GL (2000) Historical changes in pool habitats in the Columbia River Basin. Ecol Appl 10:1478–1496Google Scholar
  23. Merritt RW, Cummins KW (1978) An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IAGoogle Scholar
  24. Minshall GW, Petersen RC, Cummins KW, Bott TL, Sedell JR, Cushing CE, Vannote RL (1983) Interbiome comparison of stream ecosystem dynamics. Ecol Monogr 53:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miyake Y, Nakano S (2002) Effects of substratum stability on diversity of stream invertebrates during baseflow at two spatial scales. Freshw Biol 47:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mulholland PJ, Fellows CS, Tank JL, Grimm NB, Webster JR, Hamilton SK, Martí E, Ashkenas L, Bowden WB, Dodds WK, McDowell WH, Paul MJ, Peterson BJ (2001) Inter-biome comparison of factors controlling stream metabolism. Freshw Biol 46:1503–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Naiman RJ, Sedell JR (1979) Benthic organic matter as a function of stream order in Oregon. Arch Hydrobiol 87:423–452Google Scholar
  28. Nakano S, Murakami M (2001) Reciprocal subsidies: dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:166–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakano S, Miyasaka H, Kuhara N (1999) Terrestrial–aquatic linkages: riparian arthropod inputs alter trophic cascades in a stream food web. Ecology 80:2435–2441Google Scholar
  30. Polis GA, Power ME, Huxel GR (2004) Food webs at the landscape level. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  31. Power ME, Rainey WE (2000) Food webs and resource sheds: towards spatially delimiting trophic interactions. In: Hutchings MJ, John EA, Stewart AJA (eds) Ecological consequences of environmental heterogeneity. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 291–314Google Scholar
  32. Sabo JL, Power ME (2002) River-watershed exchange: effects of riverine subsidies on riparian lizards and their terrestrial prey. Ecology 83:1860–1869Google Scholar
  33. Shibata H, Mitsuhashi H, Miyake Y, Nakano S (2001) Dissolved and particulate carbon dynamics in a cool-temperate forested basin in northern Japan. Hydrol Process 15:1817–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tanida K (2000) Kawamushi zukan (in Japanese). Zennokyo, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  35. Wallace JB, Webster JR, Meyer JL (1995) Influence of log additions on physical and biotic characteristics of a mountain stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:2120–2137Google Scholar
  36. Wallace JB, Eggert SL, Meyer JL, Webster JR (1997) Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. Science 277:102–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Webster JR, Covich AP, Tank JL, Crockett TV (1994) Retention of coarse organic particles in streams in the southern Appalachian Mountains. J N Am Benthol Soc 13:140–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams DD, Ambrose LG, Browning LN (1995) Trophic dynamics of two sympatric species of riparian spider (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Can J Zool 73:1543–1553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wise DH (1993) Spiders in ecological webs. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ecological Society of Japan 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecosocial System EngineeringUniversity of YamanashiKofuJapan

Personalised recommendations