Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Salicornia ramosissima population dynamics and tolerance of salinity

Abstract

Field and greenhouse studies have been conducted to clarify aspects of population dynamics and NaCl tolerance of Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods. Two populations, Varela and Verdemilho, were monitored in the field during two consecutive life cycles and aspects of their morphology and density were recorded monthly. In the laboratory seedlings were exposed to different salinity for 10 weeks and growth and mortality rate were recorded weekly. The growth of the populations differed significantly, possibly because of the different salinities of the two sampling sites and/or genetic adaptations of the two populations to the environmental conditions. The absence of a significant correlation between sediment salinity and stem elongation suggested, however, that salinity, alone was not responsible for the differences observed and was possibly associated with other factors, because of nutritional, edaphic, and microclimatic conditions. S. ramosissima did not develop well in conditions of elevated or moderate salinity; its growth was optimum at low salinity. Optimum development of S. ramosissima may, nevertheless, depend on the total number of large seeds in a population seed bank, because of their greater success in germination and germinability under stress conditions than small seeds.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Adam P (1993) Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge studies in ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  2. Austenfeld FA (1988) Seed dimorphism in Salicornia europaea: nutrient reserves. Physiol Plant 73:502–504

  3. Ayala F, O’Leary JW (1995) Growth and physiology of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. at suboptimal salinity. Int J Plant Sci 156(2):197–205

  4. Backer H (1972) Seed weight in relation to environmental conditions in California. Ecology 53:997–1010

  5. Ball PW, Akeroyd JR (1996) Salicornia. In: Tutin TG, Burges NA, Chater AO, Edmondson JR, Heywood VH, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (eds) Flora europaea, vol. I. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 121–123

  6. Borrego C, Quintaneiro I, Rua J, Ré M, Cruz M (1991) The lagoon of Aveiro: an environmental pollution control strategy. In: Nath B, Robinson JP (eds) Proceedings of international conference on environmental pollution (ICEP.1), vol. 2. European Centre for Pollution Research, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, Geneva, pp 536–544

  7. Breckle SW (1990) Salinity tolerance of different halophyte types. In: Elbassam NE, Loughman BC, Dambroth M (eds) Genetics aspects of the plant mineral nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 167–175

  8. Callaway RM, Pennings SC, Richards CL (2003) Phenotypic plasticity and interactions among plants. Ecology 84(5):1115–1128

  9. Carter CT, Ungar IA (2003) Germination response of dimorphic seeds of two halophyte species to environmentally controlled and natural conditions. Can J Bot 81:918–926

  10. Castroviejo S (1990) Chenopodiaceae. In: Castroviejo S, Laínz M, González GL, Montserrat P, Garmendia FM, Paiva J, Villar L (eds) Flora Iberica, vol. II. Real Jardin Botánico C.S.I.C., Madrid, pp 476–553

  11. Chapman VJ (1974) Salt marshes and salt deserts of the world. Leonard Hill Ltd, London

  12. Davy AJ, Smith H (1985) Population differentiation in the life-history characteristics of salt-marsh annuals. Vegetatio 61:117–125

  13. Davy AJ, Bishop GF, Costa SB (2001) Salicornia L. (Salicornia pusilla J. Woods, S. ramosissima J. Woods, S. europaea L., S. obscura P.W. Ball & Tutin, S. nitens P.W. Ball & Tutin, S. fragilis P.W. Ball & Tutin and S. dolichostachya Moss). J Ecol 89:681–707

  14. Dias JM, Lopes JF, Dekeyser I (2000) Tidal propagation in Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal. Phys Chem Earth (B) 25(4):369–374

  15. Duchaufour P (1970) Précis de Pédologie. Masson, Paris

  16. Flowers TJ, Troke PF, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28:89–121

  17. Flowers TJ, Hajibaccheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. Q Rev Biol 61(3):313–337

  18. Gul B, Weber DJ (2001) Seed bank dynamics in a Great Basin salt playa. J Arid Environ 49:785–794

  19. Gul B, Weber DJ, Khan MA (2000) Effect of salinity and planting density on physiological responses of Allenrolfea occidentalis. West N Am Nat 60:188–197

  20. Harper JL (1994) Population biology of plants. Academic, London

  21. Hoagland DR, Arnon DJ (1950) The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular 347, California Agricultural Experimental Station, University of California

  22. Jefferies RL, Gottilieb LD (1982) Genetic differentiation of the microspecies Salicornia europaea L. (sensu stricto) and S. ramosissima J. Woods. New Phytol 92:123–129

  23. Jefferies RL, Davy AJ, Rudmik T (1981) Population biology of salt marsh annual Salicornia europaea agg. J Ecol 69:17–31

  24. Katembe WJ, Ungar IA, Mitchell JP (1998) Effect of salinity on germination and seedling growth of two Atriplex species (Chenopodiaceae). Ann Bot 82:167–175

  25. Keiffer CH, Ungar IA (1997) The effect of extended exposure to hypersaline conditions on the germination of five inland halophyte species. Am J Bot 84:104–111

  26. Keiffer CH, McCarthy BC, Ungar IA (1994) Effects of salinity and waterlogging on growth and survival of Salicornia europaea L., an inland halophyte. Ohio J Sci 94(3):70–73

  27. Khan MA, Ungar IA (1985) The role of hormones in regulating the germination of polymorphic seeds and early seedling growth of Atriplex triangularis Willd. under saline conditions. Physiol Plant 63:109–113

  28. Khan MA, Ungar IA (1986) Life history and population dynamics of Atriplex triangularis. Vegetatio 66:17–25

  29. Khan MA, Ungar IA, Showalter AM (2000) Effects of sodium chloride treatments on growth and ion accumulation of the halophyte Haloxylon recurvum. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31:2744–2763

  30. Khan MA, Gul B, Weber DJ (2001) Effect of salinity on the growth and ion content of Salicornia rubra. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 32(17–18):2965–2977

  31. Langlois J (1971) Influence du rytme d’immersion sur la croissance et le métabolisme protéique de Salicornia stritcta Dumort. Ocol Plant 6:227–245

  32. Larcher W (1995) Physiological plant ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

  33. Macke AJ, Ungar IA (1970) The effects of salinity on germination and early growth of Puccinellia nuttalliana. Can J Bot 49:515–520

  34. Momonoki YS, Kamimura H (1994) Studies on the mechanism of salt tolerance in Salicornia europaea L. Jpn J Crop Sci 63(3):518–523

  35. Momonoki JS, Kato S, Kamimura H (1994) Studies on the mechanism of salt tolerance in Salicornia europaea L. II. High osmosis of epidermal cells in stem. Jpn J Crop Sci 63(4):650–656

  36. Momonoki YS, Oguri S, Kato S (1996) Studies on the mechanism of salt tolerance in Salicornia europaea L. III. Salt accumulation and Ach function. Jpn J Crop Sci 65(4):693–699

  37. Moreira MH, Queiroga H, Machado MM, Cunha MR (1993) Environmental gradients in a southern Europe estuarine system: Ria de Aveiro, Portugal. Implications for soft bottom macrofauna colonization. Neth J Aquat Ecol 27(2–4):465–482

  38. Naidoo GR, Rughunanan R (1990) Salt tolerance in the succulent halophyte Sarcocornia natalensis. J Exp Bot 41:497–502

  39. Naqvi SSM (1995) Plant/crop hormone under stressful conditions. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop physiology. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 645–660

  40. Osmond CB, Bjorkman O, Anderson DJ (1980) Physiological processes in plant ecology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York

  41. Philipupillai J, Ungar IA (1984) The effect of seed dimorphism on the germination and survival of Salicornia europaea L. populations. Am J Bot 71(4):542–549

  42. Pujol JA, Calvo JF, Ramírez-Díaz L (2000) Recovery of germination from different osmotic conditions by four halophytes from southeastern Spain. Ann Bot 85:279–286

  43. Rubio-Casal AE, Castillo JM, Luque CJ, Figueroa ME (2003) Influence of salinity on germination and seeds viability of two primary colonizers of Mediterranean salt pans. J Arid Environ 53:145–154

  44. Silva H (2000) Morphologic and ecophysiologic aspects of some halophytes from Ria de Aveiro salt marsh. Ph.D. thesis, Aveiro University, Portugal

  45. Stace CA (1997) New Flora of the British Isles. 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  46. Tessier M, Gloaguen JC, Lefreuvre JC (2000) Factors affecting the population dynamics of plant ecology. Plant Ecol 147:193–203

  47. Tobe K, Zhang L, Yu Qiu G, Shimizu H, Omasa K (2001) Characteristics of seeds germination in five non-halophytic Chinese desert shrub species. J Arid Environ 47:191–201

  48. Tortensson P (1987) The demography of the annual Spergularia marina on a baltic seashore meadow. Vegetatio 68:157–168

  49. Ungar IA (1979) Seed dimorphism in Salicornia europaea L. Bot Gaz 140:102–108

  50. Ungar IA (1991) Ecophysiology of vascular halophytes. CRC, Boca Raton

  51. Vernberg FJ (1993) Salt-marsh processes: a review. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:2167–2195

  52. Watkinson AR, Davy AJ (1985) Population biology of salt marsh and dune annuals. Vegetatio 72:487–497

  53. Zar JH (1996) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall International Editions, Upper Saddle River

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Helena Silva.

About this article

Cite this article

Silva, H., Caldeira, G. & Freitas, H. Salicornia ramosissima population dynamics and tolerance of salinity. Ecol Res 22, 125–134 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-006-0008-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Salicornia ramosissima
  • Density
  • Stem elongation
  • Cohort
  • Mortality