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Assessing the potential for recovery of lakeshore vegetation: species richness of sediment propagule banks

Abstract

To assess the potential and develop appropriate techniques for the recolonization of lakeshore vegetation at sites where it had been completely lost, a pilot project was launched at Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. We investigated the species composition and density of the soil seed banks (propagule banks) of lake sediments at nine sites (total area, 65,200 m2) where lake sediments were spread thinly (∼10 cm) on the surfaces of artificial littoral zones. These zones were constructed in front of concrete levees and had microtopographic variations. In total, 180 species, including six endangered or vulnerable species and 12 native submerged plants that had disappeared from the aboveground vegetation of the lake, were recorded during the first year of restoration. The distribution of each restored species at the sites suggested the importance of microtopographic variation for recolonizing species-rich lakeshore vegetation. Furthermore, the origin of the source sediment affected the species composition of the established vegetation.

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Fig. 1a, b
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Acknowledgements

We thank the Kasumigaura River Office of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Japan for allowing us to conduct this study, Dr Stefan Hotes of the University of Tokyo for his advice on a draft of this paper. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments that improved the manuscript. This research was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (no. 15710173).

Author information

Correspondence to Jun Nishihiro.

Appendix

Appendix

List of vascular plants and charophytes observed at the study sites (for sites see Table 1 and Fig. 1a). + Presence, A alien species

Family Species Ng Of Is1 Is2 Is3a Is3b Is4 Sk Nd Alien
Asteraceae Artemisia indica + +   +      +  
Aster subulatus + + + + + + + + + A
Bidens frondosa + +   +   + + + + A
Bidens pilosa + +        + A
Bidens tripartita + +        + A
Centipeda minima + +      +    
Conyza canadensis + +   + +    + + A
Conyza sumatrensis   +        + A
Eclipta alba + + + + + + + + + A
Eclipta prostrate + + + + + + + + + A
Erigeron annuus + + + + + + + + + A
Erigeron philadelphicus + + + + + + + +   A
Galinsoga ciliata    + + + + +    A
Gnaphalium affine + +       +   
Gnaphalium calviceps          + A
Gnaphalium pennsylvanicum + +        + A
Lactuca indica     +      +  
Senecio vulgaris         + + A
Solidago altissima + + + + + + + + + A
Sonchus oleraceus +          
Xanthium canadense    + +    + + + A
Youngia japonica         + +  
Campanulaceae Lobelia chinensis          +  
Scrophulariaceae Limnophila sessiliflora         +   
Lindernia angustifolia + + +    +   +   
Lindernia dubia + + + + + + + + + A
Lindernia procumbens + + + + + + + + +  
Mazus japonicus    + + + + + +   
Veronica peregrine    + + + + + +   
Veronica undulate    + + + + + + +  
Callitrichaceae Callitriche palustris        +   +  
Lamiaceae Lycopus lucidus    + + + + + +   
Lycopus ramosissimus +   +        
Lycopus ramosissimus var. japonicus    + + + + + + +  
Mosla dianthera + + + + + + + +   
Mosla punctulata + +         
Boraginaceae Bothriospermum tenellum + + + + + + +   +  
Trigonotis peduncularis          +  
Menyanthaceae Nymphoides peltata + + +     + +   
Solanaceae Solanum americanum         + + A
Apiaceae Oenanthe javanica + +      + +   
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha australis    + + + + +    
Euphorbia supine          + A
Onagraceae Ludwigia decurrens + + + + + + + + + A
Ludwigia decurrens        + +   A
Ludwigia epilobioides + + + + + + + + +  
Oenothera biennis          + A
Oenothera laciniata + +         A
Trapaceae Trapa bispinosa var. iinumai + + + + + + + + +  
Trapa natans +   + + + + + +   
Lythraceae Ammannia coccinea     + + +   +   A
Ammannia multiflora    + + + + + +   
Rotala indica    + + +      
Haloragaceae Myriophyllum brasiliense + +       +   A
Myriophyllum spicatum +       + + +  
Fabaceae Aeschynomene indica + +   +    + + +  
Amphicarpaea bractaeta subsp. edgeworthii var. japonica        +    
Glycine max subsp. soja +   + + + + +   +  
Kummerovia striata + +        +  
Lespedeza cuneata + + +        
Trifolium dubium + +        + A
Trifolium repens + + + + + + +    A
Vicia hirsute   +       + +  
Crassulaceae Sedum bulbiferum + +       + +  
Brassicaceae Capsella bursa-pastoris   +       + +  
Cardamine flexuosa   + + + + + +   +  
Lepidium virginicum          + A
Rorippa indica + + + + + + + + +  
Rorippa islandica + + + + + + + + +  
Salicaceae Salix chaenomeloides    + + + + +    
Salix gilgiana +         +  
Salix integra +          
Salix subfragilis + + + + + + +   +  
Cucurbitaceae Actinostemma lobatum + + + + + + +   +  
Melothria japonica         +   
Clusiaceae Triadenum japonicum   +         
Polygonaceae Persicaria hydropiper + + + + + + + +   
Persicaria lapathifoliua + + + + + + + + +  
Persicaria longiseta + + + + + + + + +  
Persicaria maackianum          +  
Persicaria nipponensis   +         
Persicaria thunbergii   + +     +   +  
Rumex crispus   +         A
Rumex crispus subsp. japonicus + + + + + + + + +  
Caryophyllaceae Cerastium glomeratum + +        + A
Myosoton aquaticum    + + + + +   +  
Sagina japonica + + + + + + +    
Stellaria alsine var. undulate          +  
Stellaria media + +         
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea + + +        
Amaranthaceae Achyranthes bidentata var. tomentosa   +        +  
Chenopodiaceae Ambrina ambrosioides + +   +    + + + A
Chenopodium album + +   +    + + +  
Cannabaceae Humulus japonicus          +  
Papaveraceae Macleaya cordata           
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus cantoniensis   + + + + + +   +  
Ranunculus japonicus         +   
Ranunculus quelpaertensis var. glaber         +   
Ranunculus sceleratus + + + + + + + + +  
Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophyllum demersum         + +  
Nelumnbonaceae Nelumbo nucifera    + + + + + +   
Pontederiaceae Eichhornia crassipes +       + + + A
Monochoria korsakowii + + + + + + + +   
Monochoria vaginalis + + + + + + + +   
Typhaceae Typha angustifolia + + + + + + + + +  
Typha latifolia   +       +   
Typha orientaris +          
Poaceae Alopecurus aequalis    + + + + +   +  
Arthraxon hispidus +   + + + + + +   
Arundinella hirta    + + + +   +   
Cynodon dactylon         +   
Digitaria ciliaris + +   + + + + + +  
Digitaria violascens    + + + + +    
Echinochloa crus-galli var. caudate + + + + + + + + +  
Echinochloa oryzicola + + + + + + + + +  
Eleusine indica     + +   +    
Eragrostis multicaulis + + + + + + + + +  
Isachne globosa   +         
Panicum bisulcatum     + +      
Panicum dichotomiflorum + + + + + + + + + A
Paspalum distichum + + + + + + + + + A
Pasparlm thunbergii          +  
Phragmites australis + + + + + + +   +  
Poa annua    + + + + +    
Polypogon fugax + + + + + + + + +  
Setaria viridis    + + + + +   +  
Zizania latifolia    + + + + +    
Zoysia japonica        +    
Cyperaceae Carex dimorpholepis         +   
Carex meurocarpa    + + + + +    
Cyperus amuricus + +   +   + + + +  
Cyperus brevifolius var. leiolepis + + + + + + + + +  
Cyperus difformis + + + + + + + + +  
Cyperus engelmannii + +     + + + + A
Cyperus exaltatus var. iwasakii      + + + + +  
Cyperus flaccidus    +        
Cyperus flavidus + +       +   
Cyperus glomeratus +   + + + + + + +  
Cyperus haspan    + + + + + +   
Cyperus iria + + + + + + + + +  
Cyperus microiria + + + + + + + + +  
Cyperus polystachyos + + + + + + + + +  
Cyperus sanguinolentus + + + + + + + +   
Cyperus serotinus         +   
Eleocharis acicularis var. longiseta + + + +    + +   
Eleocharis congesta    +        
Fimbristylis dichotoma    +   + +     
Fimbristylis miliacea    + + + + + + +  
Fimbristylis squarrosa var. esquarrosa + +     + + + +  
Scirpus fluviatilis + +   + + + + + +  
Scirpus juncoides + + + + + +   +   
Scirpus lacustris subsp. Creber +   +     + +   
Scirpus planiculmis + +       +   
Scirpus triangulatus + +         
Scirpus triqueter + + + + + + + + +  
Juncaceae Juncus effusus var. decipiens + +    +     +  
Juncus leschenaultii + +         
Juncus tenuis         +   
Luzula capitata          +  
Commelinaceae Commelina communis + + +       +  
Murdannia keisak + +      + + +  
Lemnaceae Spirodela polyrhiza + + + + + + + + +  
Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton crispus + +       + +  
Potamogeton distinctus +          
Potamogeton malaianus + + + + + + + + +  
Potamogeton oxyphyllus        +    
Potamogeton pectinatus + +         
Potamogeton perfoliatus + +         
Potamogeton anguillanus + +         
Hydrocharitaceae Egeria densa          + A
Elodea nuttallii   +      +    A
Hydrocharis dubia + +        +  
Vallisneria denseserrulata        +    
Vallisneria natans + +         
Alismataceae Sagittaria trifolia + + + + + + + + +  
Alisma canaliculatum   +       + +  
Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense + +      +   +  
Parkeriaceae Ceratopteris thalictroides    +        
Characeae Chara braunii + +         
Nitella hyaline +          

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Nishihiro, J., Nishihiro, M.A. & Washitani, I. Assessing the potential for recovery of lakeshore vegetation: species richness of sediment propagule banks. Ecol Res 21, 436–445 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-005-0133-y

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Keywords

  • Aquatic plants
  • Lake Kasumigaura
  • Lakeshore vegetation
  • Restoration
  • Seed bank