Inhibitory effect of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) on deterioration of bone structure in the distal femoral epiphysis of ovariectomized mice
- 126 Downloads
To evaluate the inhibitory effects of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®) on the deterioration of bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular structure due to osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice.
Materials and methods
Five-week-old OVX ICR mice were divided into three groups: (1) OVX mice given Pycnogenol (Pycnogenol), (2) sham-operated mice (sham), and OVX mice not given Pycogenol (OVX control). All mice received standard feed; drinking water was provided ad libitum, with tap water for the sham and OVX control groups, and water containing Pycnogenol (120 mg/L) for the Pycnogenol group. Mice were housed for 3 months under these conditions, and then the femurs were resected and blood samples collected. The BMD of the distal femoral epiphysis was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Micro-computed tomography was also performed to evaluate the three-dimensional structure. Deterioration of BMD and trabecular structure was compared between the groups.
The Pycnogenol group showed a reduced loss of BMD compared to the OVX control group, which led to a significantly higher trabecular BMD in the former group. Additionally, surface area, number, content and complexity of the trabeculae, intertrabecular distance, and trabecular connectivity were all preserved in the Pycnogenol group. Pycnogenol thus significantly prevented trabecular architectural deterioration.
Our findings suggest that Pycnogenol may be useful in preventing BMD loss and trabecular architectural deterioration in osteoporosis.
KeywordsPycnogenol Osteoporosis Bone quality Bone mineral density Matrix metalloproteinases
- 3.Rohdewald P. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;40:158–68.Google Scholar
- 13.Tezuka K, Nemoto K, Tezuka Y, Sato T, Ikeda Y, Kobori M, et al. Identification of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in rabbit osteoclasts. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1506–9.Google Scholar
- 16.Ferreti JL. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography for evaluating structural and mechanical properties of small bone. In: An YH, Draughn RA, editors. Mechanical testing of bone and the bone-implant interface. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2000. p. 390–2.Google Scholar
- 17.RATOC System Engineering Co. Ltd. TRI/3D-BON. Basic operation manual. Tokyo, Japan: RATOC System Engineering Co Ltd. 2002.Google Scholar
- 24.Nakamura K, Matsubara M, Asai H, Koyama A, Fujikawa T, Kashima I. Mathematical morphology for extraction of bone trabecural pattern: preliminary investigation of quantitative analysis using the star volume. J Jpn Soc Bone Morphom. 1999;9:45–51.Google Scholar
- 28.Steiner E, Jergas M, Genant H. Radiology of osteoporosis. In: Marcus R, Feldman D, Kelsey J, editors. osteoporosis. San Diego: Academic Press; 1996. p. 1019–54.Google Scholar
- 29.Arnold JS. Trabecular patterns and shapes in aging and osteoporosis. Metab Bone Dis Rel Res. 1980;2S:297–308.Google Scholar
- 38.Tsugawa N, Shiraki M, Suhara Y, Kamao M, Tanaka K, Okano T. Vitamin K status of healthy Japanese women; age-related vitamin K requirement for γ-carboxylation of osteocalcin. Am Clin Nutr. 2006;83:380–6.Google Scholar