Effects of a supplement containing vitamin K2 (MK7) and calcium phosphate (salmon bone powder) on the femur trabecular structure in ovariectomized mice: a study using three-dimensional imaging analysis
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To evaluate the effectiveness of a supplement containing vitamin K2 (VK2) and salmon bone powder (SBP) in improving bone trabeculae.
Using ovariectomized (OVX) female mice, the effects of a supplement containing naturally occurring SBP (calcium phosphate) and VK2 (menaquinone 7) were examined. Three test groups were given SBP supplements with concentrations of 2% calcium (Ca), 5% Ca, or 2% Ca + VK2 (50 µg/100 g). The control group received calcium carbonate (CC) at a concentration of 2% Ca, and a sham-ovariectomized group was given CC at a concentration of 1.2% Ca. Each group was maintained on its respective diet for 3 months. The femora were then extracted and analyzed three-dimensionally by microcomputed tomography with regard to bone structural parameters.
No significant difference was observed in the serum Ca concentration among the five groups. The bone trabecular structure was better preserved in the OVX-2% Ca and OVX-5% Ca groups; a significantly difference (P ≪ 0.05) was observed in trabecular thickness as compared with the control group. In the OVX-2% Ca + VK2 group, significant improvements were observed in bone volume, bone surface area, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, fractal dimension, and connectivity density (P ≪ 0.05, P ≪ 0.01). The state of the bone trabecular structure in the OVX-2% Ca + VK2 group was better than that in the OVX-2% Ca group with a significant difference in bone surface area (P ≪ 0.05).
The results indicate that a supplement of VK2 and SBP is effective in preventing deterioration of the bone trabecular structure in OVX mice.
Key wordsDiagnostic imaging 3-D imaging Food supplements Vitamin K2 Salmon
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