World Wide Web

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 63–92 | Cite as

Content Adaptation Architectures Based on Squid Proxy Server

  • Claudia Canali
  • Valeria Cardellini
  • Riccardo Lancellotti


The overwhelming popularity of Internet and the technology advancements have determined the diffusion of many different Web-enabled devices. In such an heterogeneous client environment, efficient content adaptation and delivery services are becoming a major requirement for the new Internet service infrastructure. In this paper we describe intermediary-based architectures that provide adaptation and delivery of Web content to different user terminals. We present the design of a Squid-based prototype that carries out the adaptation of Web images and combines such a functionality with the caching of multiple versions of the same resource. We also investigate how to provide some form of cooperation among the nodes of the intermediary infrastructure, with the goal to evaluate to what extent the cooperation in discovering, adapting, and delivering Web resources can improve the user-perceived performance.


content adaptation proxy servers distributed systems performance evaluation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Apache, Apache HTTP Server, 2005.
  2. [2]
    M. Butler, F. Giannetti, R. Gimson, and T. Wiley, “Device independence and the Web,” IEEE Internet Computing, 6(5), 2002, 81–86.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    C. Canali, V. Cardellini, M. Colajanni, R. Lancellotti, and P. S. Yu, “Cooperative architectures and algorithms for discovery and transcoding of multi-version content,” in Proc. of 8th Int'l Workshop on Web Content Caching and Distribution, 2003.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    V. Cardellini, P. S. Yu, and Y. W. Huang, “Collaborative proxy system for distributed Web content transcoding,” in Proc. of 9th ACM Int'l Conf. on Information and Knowledge Management, Nov. 2000, pp. 520–527.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. S. Chandra, S. Ellis, and A. Vahdat, “Application-level differentiated multimedia Web services using quality aware transcoding,” IEEE J. on Selected Areas in Communication, 18(12), 2000, 2544–2465.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    S. Chandra, A. Gehani, C. S. Ellis, and A. Vahdat, “Transcoding characteristics of Web images,” in Proc. of Multimedia Computing and Networking Conf., Jan. 2001.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    C.-Y. Chang and M.-S. Chen, “On exploring aggregate effect for efficient cache replacement in transcoding proxies,” IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 14(6), 2003, 611–624.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. Chankhunthod, P. B. Danzig, C. Neerdaels, M. F. Schwartz, and K. J. Worrel, “A hierarchical Internet object cache,” in Proc. of USENIX Ann. Tech. Conf, Jan. 1996, pp. 153–163.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. G. Dykes and K. A. Robbins, “A viability analysis of cooperative proxy caching,” in Proc. of IEEE Infocom 2001, April 2001.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    L. Fan, P. Cao, J. Almeida, and A. Z. Broder, “Summary cache: A scalable wide-area Web cache sharing protocol,” IEEE/ACM Trans. on Networking, 8(3), 2000, 281–293.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    R. T. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. C. Mogul, H. F. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. J. Leach, and T. Berners-Lee. Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1. RFC 2616, June 1999.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. Fox, S. D. Gribble, Y. Chawathe, E. A. Brewer, and P. Gauthier, “Cluster-based scalable network services,” in Proc. of 16th ACM SOSP, Oct. 1997, pp. 78–91.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. Han, P. Bhagwat, R. LaMaire, T. Mummert, V. Perret, and J. Rubas, “Dynamic adaptation in an image transcoding proxy for mobile Web browsing,” IEEE Personal Comm., 5(6), 1998, 8–17.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    IBM. IBM WebSphere Transcoding Publisher, 2005.
  15. [15]
    S. Ihde, P. P. Maglio, J. Meyer, and R. Barrett, “Intermediary-based transcoding framework,” IBM System Journal, 40(1), 2001, 179–192.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    ImageMagick, 2005.
  17. [17]
    IRCache project, 2005.
  18. [18]
    B. Knutsson, H. Lu, and J. Mogul, “Architecture and performance of server-directed transcoding,” ACM Trans. on Internet Technology, 3(4), 2003, 392–424.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    W. Y. Lum and F. C. M. Lau, “On balancing between transcoding overhead and spatial consumption in content adaptation,” in Proc. of ACM Mobicom 2002, September 2002, pp. 239–250.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Maheshwari, A. Sharma, K. Ramamritham, and P. Shenoy, “TransSquid: Transcoding and caching proxy for heterogeneous e-commerce environments,” in Proc. of 12th IEEE Int'l Workshop on Res. Issues in Data Eng., Feb. 2002, pp. 50–59.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
  22. [22]
    R. Mohan, J. R. Smith, and C.-S. Li, “Adapting multimedia Internet content for universal access,” IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 1(1), 104–114, 1999.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. Pashtan, S. Kollipara, and M. Pearce, “Adapting content for wireless Web services,” IEEE Internet Computing, 7(5), 2003, 79–85.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Rabinovich and O. Spatscheck, Web Caching and Replication. Addison Wesley, 2002.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    A. Rousskov and D. Wessels, “Cache digests,” Computer Networks, 30(22/23), 1998, 2155–2168.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    B. Shen, S.-J. Lee, and S. Basu, “Caching strategies in transcoding-enabled proxy systems for streaming media distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. on Multimedia, 6(2), 2004, 375–386.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    W. Shi, K. Shah, Y. Mao, and V. Chaudhary, “Tuxedo: A peer-to-peer caching system,” in Proc. of 2003 Int'l Conf. on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, June 2003.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    A. Singh, A. Trivedi, K. Ramamritham, and P. Shenoy, “PTC: Proxies that transcode and cache in heterogeneous Web client environments,” World Wide Web, 7(1), 2004, 7–28.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Squid Internet Object Cache, 2005.
  30. [30]
    X. Tang, F. Zhang, and S. T. Chanson, “Streaming media caching algorithms for transcoding proxies,” in Proc. of Int'l Conf. on Parallel Processing, Aug. 2002, pp. 287–295.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    D. Wessels, Squid Programmers Guide, 2004.
  32. [32]
    D. Wessels and K. Claffy, Internet Cache Protocol (ICP), version 2. RFC 2186, Sept. 1997.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    B. Zenel, “A general purpose proxy filtering mechanism applied to the mobile environment,” Wireless Networks, 5(5), 1999, 391–409.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Canali
    • 1
  • Valeria Cardellini
    • 2
  • Riccardo Lancellotti
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Information EngineeringUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science, Systems and ProductionUniversity of Roma Tor VergataRomaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Computer EngineeringUniversity of ModenaModenaItaly

Personalised recommendations