The Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is an autonomous system mobile vehicle connected over a wireless link to transmit data packets in the network. It is noteworthy that vehicles are highly mobile with a limited communication range so that they change their network topology frequently. Therefore, efficient and robust data delivery in VANET is a challenging task due to dynamic network topology, unstable links, and high mobility. In this paper, an opportunistic routing protocol named Opportunistic Directional-Location Added Routing (OD-LAR) protocol proposed that uses full broadcast characteristics. The proposed protocol OD-LAR is a combination of geographical location, link quality, and angular deviation. Using all of these three metrics proposed protocol prioritizes the candidate next-hop forwarder (CNHF) nodes at the border area (BA) of the forward area (FA) towards destination node D. The proposed protocol OD-LAR assign the highest priority to CNHF node has the minimum distance from destination, good link quality, and minimum angular deviation and selects it as an optimal next hop forwarder (ONHF) node. The basic aim of the proposed OD-LAR protocol is to improve packet overhead, packet drop rates, delay, and throughput. To evaluate the performance of OD-LAR, it has simulated through network simulator-2 (NS-2) and compared with the directional-location aided routing (D-LAR) and location aided routing (LAR) protocols. Through simulated results, it has shown packet drop rate and delay is minimum in OD-LAR as compared to the D-LAR and LAR protocols.
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Rana, K.K., Tripathi, S. & Raw, R.S. Opportunistic Directional Location Aided Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network. Wireless Pers Commun 110, 1217–1235 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-019-06782-4