Advertisement

Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 109, Issue 3, pp 1673–1687 | Cite as

A Compact Plus Shaped Carpet Fractal Antenna with an I-Shaped DGS for C-band/X-band/UWB/WIBAN applications

  • Navneet Kaur
  • Amanpreet KaurEmail author
Article
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

This article presents the design and development of a compact broadband “+” shaped aperture coupled carpet fractal antenna with a defected ground structure (I shaped slot in the ground) for broadband/ultra wideband (UWB) and a multiband characteristics. The antenna has overall dimensions of 8.4 cm × 5.5 cm × 3.2 mm and is fed using aperture coupled feeding mechanism. It shows an impedance bandwidth (< 10 dB) of 4460 MHz from 6.93 to 11.39 GHz with fractional bandwidth of 0.48 at the center resonant frequency of 9.16 GHz. A multiband behavior is also exhibited by this antenna from 3.9–4.08 GHz, 4.8–5.06 GHz and 6.1–6.4 GHz with impedance bandwidths of 180 MHz, 260 MHz and 300 MHz respectively. It therefore supports the wireless applications of Wi-MAX (3.8–4.1 GHz), Wi-BAN/long distance radio telecommunication (4.8–5.06 GHz), wireless sensor networks (6.1–6.4 GHz), satellite (7.4–7.8 GHz) and UWB (6.9–11.03 GHz). The antenna is designed as a ‘+’ shaped patch with fractal rectangular slots cut out from it up to iterations of second order that allow the antenna to support multiband characteristics. The bandwidth at these bands is improved by using I shaped defected ground structure (DGS) and a parasitic feeding method i.e. aperture coupled feeding (Karur et al., in: ICMARS (IEEE), Jodhpur, India, pp. 266–270, 2014).The antenna has a compact structure with two layers of FR4 substrate, the ‘+’ shaped carpet fractal printed on the upper substrate layer and the lower substrate has a ground layer printed on its top and feed line on its bottom layer respectively. It shows a simulated peak gain of 4 dB at an operation frequency of 7.95 GHz. The antenna design and simulations are done using CST MWS V14. The Simulation results in terms of impedance bandwidth, smith chart, gain are presented in this article. To validate the impedance bandwidth results, the proposed carpet fractal antenna is experimentally tested using a vector network analyzer and the measured results are found to be closely matching with the simulated ones, allowing the antenna to be practically suitable for the afore mentioned wireless applications.

Keywords

Carpet fractal antenna Defected ground structure Ultra wideband Aperture coupled feed Impedance bandwidth C band X band 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to UGC for providing the necessary resources for carrying out the research work. The University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India has provided a fund Grant of 15.8 lakhs under the major project scheme for setting up the antenna testing facility at Thapar University, Patiala.

References

  1. 1.
    Kaur, A., Khanna, R., & Machavaram, K. (2014). Stacked rectangular MSA with defected ground structure for IEEE 802.11b/g bands and WiMaX applications. In ICMARS (IEEE) (pp. 266–270), Jodhpur, India.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaur, A. (2015). Semi spiral G-shaped dual wideband microstrip antenna with aperture feeding for WLAN/Wi MAX/U-NII band applications. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1759078715000276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaur, A., Khanna, R., & Machavaram, K. (2015). A stacked Sierpinski gasket fractal antenna with a defected ground structure for UWB/WLAN/RADIO astronomy/STM Link applications. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters,57(12), 2786–2792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaur, N., & Kaur, A. (2017). Design of planar bowtie aperture coupled antenna for UWB applications. In 5th international conference on advancements in engineering and technology (ICAET). ISBN 978-81-924893-2-2.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaur, A., & Khanna, R. (2017). Design and development of a stacked complementary microstrip antenna with a “π”-shaped DGS for UWB, UNII, WLAN, WiMAX, and radio astronomy wireless applications. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1759078717000150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kaur, M., Kaur, A., & Khanna, R. (2012). A microstrip patch antenna with aperture coupled technique at 5.8 and 2 GHz. MIT International Journal,2(2), 68–73.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaur, N., & Sivia, J. S. (2016). Design of modified plus shape Sierpinski carpet fractal antenna for S and C band applications. In INCITE (IEEE) (pp. 230–235), Noida, India.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Azari, A. A. (2011). New super wideband fractal microstrip antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation,59(5), 1724–1727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azari, A., & Rowhani, J. (2008). Ultrawideband fractal microstrip antenna design. Progress in Electromagnetic Research,2, 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Werner, D. H., & Ganguly, S. (2003). An overview of fractal antenna engineering research. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagations,45, 38–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vinoy, K. J., Abraham, J. K., & Vardan, V. K. (2003). On the relationship between fractal dimension and the performance of multi-resonant dipole antennas using koch curves. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagations,51(9), 2296–2303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gianvittorio, J. P., & Samii, Y. R. (2002). Fractal antennas: A novel antenna miniaturization technique and applications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine,44(1), 20–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jagdeesha, S., Vani, R. M., Hunagund, P. V., & Hegde, P. (2013). Two element self-similar plus fractal antenna for wireless applications. In CRT (IEEE) (pp. 1–5), Ujire, India.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jagadeesha, R. M., Vani, P., & Hunagund, V. (2012). Plus shape slotted fractal antenna for wireless applications. Wireless Engineering and Technology,3, 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Falconer, K. J. (1990). Fractal geometry: Mathematical foundations and applications. New York: Wiley.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamecki, A., & Debicki, P. (2002). Broadband properties of a Minkowski fractal curve antenna. In MIKON (IEEE) (pp. 785–788), Gdansk, Poland.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yu, Y. H., & Ji, C. P. (2011). Research of fractal technology in the design of multi-frequency antenna. In ChinaJapan joint microwave conference proceedings (CJMW).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaur, A., & Singh, G. (2014). A review paper on fractal antenna engineering. International Journal of Advance Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering,3(6), 2320–3765.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu, S. D., Shi, X. W., & Liu, S. F. (2007). Study on the impedance-matching technique for high temperature superconducting microstrip antennas. Progress in Electromagnetics Research,77, 281–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Antenna Testing and Research Laboratory, Electronics and Communication Engineering DepartmentThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations