Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 108, Issue 4, pp 2403–2414 | Cite as

Feed Point Optimization of Koch–Minkowski Hybrid Boundary antenna for ISM Band

  • Chahat JainEmail author
  • Saroop Singh


In this modern era, wireless communication is becoming an essential part of life of human beings. For effective wireless communication effective radiators are required. In this paper the type of radiator being discussed is a combination of two different fractal curves mainly Minkowski and Koch curve. Genetic algorithm and Firefly algorithm of optimization have been utilized to find the optimized feed point location of the antenna designed. The designed antenna basically resonates in the ISM band frequency of 2.4 GHz. FR4 substrate having dielectric constant of 4.4 and thickness of 1.5 mm is used to fabricate the proposed antenna. The two different algorithms applied are Genetic and Firefly algorithm which gives quite promising results for feed locations. Firefly algorithm converges fast in 41.3 s where as Genetic algorithm gives the results in 48.9 s by the use of the same processor for both algorithms. The antenna is fabricated by using FR4 substrate and after fabrication; testing is done by using the Vector Network Analyzer. The results after testing are quite promising that of optimized results of the designed antenna.


Minkowski curve Koch curve Artificial Neural Network Genetic algorithm Firefly algorithm FR4 substrate and hybridization 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringGuru Nanak Dev Engineering CollegeLudhianaIndia

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