Advertisement

Flip Left-to-Right Approach Based Inverse Tree Interleavers for Unconventional Integrated OFDM-IDMA and SCFDMA-IDMA Systems

  • Manish YadavEmail author
  • Vinod Shokeen
  • Pramod Kumar Singhal
Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Several interleavers have been proposed for conventional interleave division multiple access (CIDMA) systems which provides a mean to control burst errors and to reduce multi user and multiple access interferences. However, CIDMA alone is incapable of completely removing inter-symbol interference and inter-carrier interference problems even in presence of such interleaver. In this paper, a recently developed novel interleaver i.e. ‘flip left–right approach based inverse-tree interleaver’ (FLRITI) or simply ‘inverse tree interleaver’, has been explored for two unconventional integrated interleave division multiple access techniques i.e. single carrier frequency division multiple access cum interleave division multiple access (SCFDMA-IDMA) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based interleave division multiple access (OFDM-IDMA). The results and analysis reveal that this unconventional integration of CIDMA with SCFDMA and OFDM techniques in presence of FLRITI improves the overall system performance in terms of bit-error rate, memory footprint and computation complexity. Therefore, it validates the worthiness of FLRITI as a competent interleaver for the communication systems to be used even beyond fourth generation.

Keywords

Conventional interleave division multiple access (CIDMA) Single carrier frequency division multiple access (SCFDMA) Tree interleaver (TI) Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Integrated IDMA (IIDMA) Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) 

List of Symbols

ƛ

Level of repetition coder

K

Total no. of users

k

kth specific user

k

Interleaving pattern for kth user

dk

Input data sequence of kth user

\(l\)

Length of data sequence

Ck

Chip sequence for kth user

\(\widetilde{{x_{k} }}\)

Interleaved sequence of kth user

\(X_{k}\)

Sequence obtained after SCM and IFFT operations

\(F\)

M × M DFT matrix

M

Length of chip sequence and/or number of OFDM subcarriers

Ł

Length of cyclic prefix

\({{\uptau }}_{\text{d}}\)

Channel delay spread

\({{\uptau }}_{{{\text{e}}\left( { \hbox{max} } \right)}}\)

Maximum timing-error

L

Length of MAC

\(r\)

Resultant output of MAC

\(r_{k}\)

Received vector for kth user

N

AWGN

\(\widetilde{H}_{k}\)

M × M circular channel matrix

\(T_{k}\)

M × M circular time-shift matrix

H

Channel matrix

\(H_{k}\)

Diagonalized channel matrix

\(\xi_{k}\)

Noise plus interference component

\(e_{ESE }\)

Output of ESE

\(e_{DEC }\)

Output of DEC

\(\prod_{LR}^{ - 1}\)

Inverse interleaving pattern of sequence flipped left-to-right

\(\prod\)

Mother or reference interleaver

Abbreviations

3GPP

3rd Generation partnership project

APP

Apriori probability

AWGN

Additive white Gaussian noise

B4G

Beyond 4th generation

BER

Bit error rate

CBC

Chip-by-chip detection

CDMA

Code-division multiple access

CIDMA

Conventional interleave division multiple access

CPI

Cyclic prefix insertion

CPR

Cyclic prefix removal

DEC

Decoder

DFT

Discrete Fourier transforms

DSCM

De-mapping of subcarriers

ESE

Elementary signal estimator

FEC

Forward error correction

FFT

Fast Fourier transforms

FLRITI

Flip left-to-right approach based inverse tree interleavers

ICI

Intercarrier interference

IDFT

Inverse discrete Fourier transform

IFFT

Inverse fast Fourier transform

IDMA

Interleave division multiple access

IIDMA

Integrated interleave division multiple access

ISI

Intersymbol interference

ITBI

Inverse tree based interleaver

ITI

Inverse tree interleaver

LLR

Logliklihood ratio

LTE

Long-term evolution

MAC

Multiple access channel

MAI

Multiple access interference

MUI

Multiuser interference

OFDM

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

OFDM-IDMA

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based interleave division multiple access

PAPR

Peak-to-average power ratio

PN

Pseudo noise

POC

Probability of occurrence

RI

Random interleavers

SCFDMA-IDMA

Single carrier frequency division multiple access based interleave division multiple access

SCM

Subcarrier mapping

TBI

Tree based interleaver

TI

Tree interleaver

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Ping, L., Liu, L., Wu, K., & Leung, W. K. (2006). Interleave-division multiple-access. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 5(4), 938–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wu, H., Ping, L., & Perotti, A. (2006). User-specific chip-level interleaver design for IDMA systems. IEEE Electronics Letters, 42(4), 233–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shukla, M., Srivastava, V. K., & Tiwari, S. (2008). Analysis and design of tree based interleaver for multiuser receivers in IDMA scheme. In Proceedings of the of IEEE 16th international conference on networks ICON)’08, New Delhi, India (pp. 978–981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yadav, M., & Banerjee, P. (2016). Bit error rate analysis of various interleavers for IDMA scheme. In Proceedings of the IEEE 3rd international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN)’16, Noida, India.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shukla, M., Srivastava, V. K., & Tiwari, S. (2012). Implementation of interleavers for iterative IDMA receivers. Research Journal of Information Technology, 4, 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sharma, S., Sau, P. C., & Shukla, A. (2014). Performance survey of IDMA with different interleavers. In Proceedings of the IEEE 1st international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN)’14, Noida, India (pp. 344–348).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yadav, M., Gautam, P. R., Shokeen, V., & Singhal, P. K. (2017). Modern Fisher-Yates shuffling based random interleaver design for SCFDMA-IDMA system. Wireless Personal Communications, 97(1), 63–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang, R., & Hanzo, L. (2008). Three design aspects of multicarrier interleave-division multiple-access. The IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 57, 3607–3617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yadav, M., Shokeen, V., & Singhal, P. K. (2017). Uncoded integrated interleave division multiple access systems in presence of power interleavers. Radioelectronics and Communications Systems, 60(11), 503–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kusume, K., Bauch, G., & Utschick, W. (2012). IDMA vs. CDMA: Analysis and comparison of two multiple access schemes. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 11(1), 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mahadevappa, R. H., & Proakis, J. G. (2002). Mitigating multiple access interference and intersymbol interference in uncoded CDMA systems with chip-level interleaving. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 1, 781–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yadav, M., Shokeen, V., & Singhal, P. K. (2016). BER versus BSNR analysis of conventional IDMA and OFDM-IDMA based systems with tree interleaving. In IEEE 2nd international conference on advances in computing, communication and automation (ICACCA)-Fall’16.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pupeza, I., Kavcic, A., & Ping, L. (2006) Efficient generation of interleavers for IDMA. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on communications, ICC’06, Istambul, Turkey.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ren, D., Ge, J., & Li, J. (2013). Modified collision-free interleavers for high speed turbo decoding. Wireless Personal Communications, 68, 939–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abderrahmane, L. H., & Chellali, S. (2008). Performance comparison between Gaussian Interleaver, Rayleigh interleaver, and dithered golden interleaver. Annals of Telecommunications Letters, 63, 449–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koutsouveils, K. V., & Dimakis, C. E. (2007). A low complexity algorithm for generating turbo code s-random interleavers. Wireless Personal Communications, 46, 365–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ying, T., Hong, S., & Bei, Z. H. (2004). Interleaver design method for turbo codes based on genetic algorithm. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences, 9(3), 323–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trifina, L., Munteanu, V., & Tarniceriu, D. (2007). Turbo codes with modified Welsh-Costas interleavers. Annals of Telecommunications, 62, 1045–1052.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xin-rui, M., You-yun, X., & Le, Z. (2007). A proof of maximum contention-free property of interleavers for turbo codes using permutation polynomials over integer rings. Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 8(1), 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yuan, J., Vucetic, B., Feng, W., & Tan, M. (2001). Design of cyclic shift interleavers for turbo-codes. Annals of Telecommunications, 56, 384–393.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yadav, M., Shokeen, V., & Singhal, P. K. (2017). Flip left right approach based inverse tree interleaver design for IDMA scheme. AEÜ: International Journal of Electronics and Communications, 81, 182–191.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shukla, M., Srivastava, V. K., & Tiwari, S. (2009). Analysis and design of optimum interleaver for iterative receivers in IDMA scheme. Wireless Communication and Mobile Computing, 9, 1312–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mahafeno, I., Langlais, C. & Jego C. (2006). OFDM-IDMA versus IDMA with ISI cancellation for quasi-static Rayleigh fading multipath channels. In Proceedings of the 4th international symposium turbo codes (pp. 140–144).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ping, L., Guo, Q., & Tong, J. (2007). The OFDM-IDMA approach to wireless communication systems. IEEE Wireless Communications, 14, 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang, Z. H., & Yu, G. F. (2013). Study on simulation performance of OFDM-IDMA system. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 380–384, 4120–4123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bie, H. & Bie, Z. (2006). A hybrid multiple access scheme: OFDMA-IDMA. In IEEE 1st international conference on communication and networking in Beijing, China (pp. 1–3).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiong, X., Luo, Z. (2011). SC-FDMA-IDMA: A hybrid multiple access scheme for LTE uplink. In Proceedings of the 7th IEEE international conference on wireless communication networking and mobile computing (WiCOM)’11, Wuhan, China (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ma, X., Kobayashi, H., & Schwartz, S. C. (2003). Effect of frequency offset on BER of OFDM and single carrier systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 14th International Symposium on PIMRC’03, Beijing, China, 3, 2239–2243.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Berkmann, J., Carbonelli, C., Dietrich, F., Drewes, C. & Xu, W. (2008). On 3G LTE terminal implementation-standard, algorithms, complexities and challenges. In Proceedings of the IEEE international wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC)’08, Crete Island (pp. 970–975).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Myung, H. G., Lim, J., & Goodman, D. J. (2006). Single carrier FDMA for uplink wireless transmission. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 1(3), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Myung, H. G. (2007). Introduction to single carrier FDMA (2007). In Proceedings of the 15th European IEEE signal processing conference’07, Poznan (pp. 2144–2148).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang, K. & Wang, X. (2005). A multicarrier chip-interleaved multiuser UWB system. In IEEE international conference (ICASSP)’05 (pp. III-325–328).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amity School of Engineering and TechnologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Amity Institute of Advanced Research and StudiesAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Electronics EngineeringMadhav Institute of Technology and Science (MITS)GwaliorIndia

Personalised recommendations