Secure Multi-hop Data Transmission in Cognitive Radio Networks Under Attack in the Physical Layer
- 40 Downloads
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) have a shortcoming in that attackers can increase their ability to disturb secondary users (SUs). This paper focuses on jamming attacks in the physical layer, in which several attackers try to interrupt SUs by injecting the interference into their communications. Once a jammer transmits interfering signals on the channel during the defined time, all ongoing transmissions on this channel will be corrupted. It is quite difficult for SUs to protect a single-hop data transmission from jammers. So, obtaining a solution for secure multi-hop data transmission in the presence of jammers becomes a more challenging task in CRNs. This paper investigates a strategy to find the optimal route and channels for transmission between cognitive transmitters and receivers in the presence of jammers in CRNs. In this scenario, the jammers are located randomly and their jamming behavior is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. We provide an optimal link–channel pair allocation scheme in which the secondary transmitter (the source) selects the best relay and a suitable channel for each hop in the source-to-destination route to protect the information intended to the secondary receiver (the destination) from the jammers. Simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme in a CR network.
KeywordsCognitive radio Jamming attacks Physical layer Spectrum allocation
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2015R1D1A1A09057077) as well as by the MEST (2017R1D1A1B03029448).
- 1.Federal Communications Commission. (2002). FCC spectrum policy task force report, ET Docket, No. 02–135.Google Scholar
- 2.Wyglinski, A. M., Nekovee, M., & Hou, Y. T. (2009). Cognitive radio communications and networks: principles and practice. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- 9.Brown, T. & Sethi, A. (2007). Potential cognitive radio denial-of-service vulnerabilities and protection countermeasures: A multi-dimensional analysis and assessment. In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Network Communications (pp. 456–464).Google Scholar
- 11.Xu, W. et al. (2004). Channel surfing and spatial retreats: Defenses against wireless denial of service. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop wireless security, Philadelphia, PA (pp. 80–89).Google Scholar
- 12.Attar, A., Tang, H., Vasilakos, A. V., Yu, F. R., & Leung, V. C. M. (2012). A survey of security challenges in cognitive radio networks: Solutions and future research directions. In Proceedings of the IEEE (pp. 3172–3186). https://doi.org/10.1109/JPROC.2012.2208211.
- 16.Ho-Van, K. & Sofotasios, P. C. (2013). Bit error rate of underlay multi-hop cognitive networks in the presence of multipath fading. In 2013 fifth international conference on ubiquitous and future networks (ICUFN), Da Nang (pp. 620–624). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUFN.2013.6614893.
- 17.Wang, W., Kwasinski, A. & Han, Z. (2014). A routing game in cognitive radio networks against routing-toward-primary-user attacks. In IEEE wireless communications and networking conference (pp. 2510–2515). https://doi.org/10.1109/WCNC.2014.6952783.
- 20.Adem, N., Hamdaoui, B. & Yavuz, A. (2015). Pseudorandom time-hopping anti-jamming technique for mobile cognitive users. In 2015 IEEE globecom workshops, (pp. 1–16). https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOMW.2015.7414043.
- 21.Arunthavanathan, S., Goratti, L., Maggi, L., De Pellegrini, F. & Kandeepan, S. (2014). On the achievable rate in a D2D cognitive secondary network under jamming attacks. In 2014 9th international conference on cognitive radio oriented wireless networks and communications, (pp. 39–44). https://doi.org/10.4108/icst.crowncom.2014.255665.
- 22.Wang, P. & Henz, B. (2014). Throughput analysis of channel surfing in jammed single-hop wireless networks. In 2014 wireless telecommunications symposium, (pp. 1–8). https://doi.org/10.1109/WTS.2014.6834998.