Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 106, Issue 4, pp 1915–1929 | Cite as

Design and Analysis of Single-Bit Ternary Matched Filter

  • Abeer ChangEmail author
  • Tayab Din Memon
  • Zahir M. Hussain
  • Imtiaz Hussain Kalwar
  • Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry


Matched filtering has found its way in many diverse applications such as communication, signal processing and more. The emphasis of this paper is on the design and analysis of a sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulated ternary Matched Filter aimed at digital signal processing. The filter coefficients are made ternary {+ 1, − 1, 0} using the Ternary Quantizer. The performance of the new design is measured on the basis of Probability of error versus Signal-to-noise ratio and it was discovered that the performance curve of the single-bit designed Matched Filter is approximately in agreement with the theoretical SNR versus Probability of error curve and works satisfactorily satisfactorily like a multi-bit Matched Filter and as an extension, the functionality of the above mentioned design is also generated on Xilinx System Generator and is successfully synthesized, simulated and verified on FPGA.


Matched filter Sigma-delta modulator Ternary Quantizer Signal-to-noise ratio Digital signal processing 



We would like to show our gratitude to Mehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET), Jamshoro for providing us a platform and environment to be able to write and work on this significant topic.


  1. 1.
    Memon, T. D., Beckett, P., & Sadik, A. (2012). Sigma-delta modulation based digital filter design techniques in FPGA. ISRN Electronics, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson, A. C., O’Shea, P., Hussain, Z. M., & Steele, B. (2004). Efficient single-bit ternary digital filtering using sigma-delta modulator. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 11(2), 164–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sadik, A., & Hussain, Z. M. (2007). Short word-length LMS filtering. In Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on signal processing and its applications (ISSPA ‘07), pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bancroft, J. C. (2002). Introduction to matched filters. Resource document. CREWES. Accessed May 12 2016.
  5. 5.
    Memon, T. D., Beckett, P., & Sadik, A. (2012). Power-area-performance characteristics of FPGA-based sigma-delta FIR filters. Journal of Signal Processing Systems, 70(3), 275–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson, A. C., Hussain, Z. M., & O’Shea, P. (2003). Performance of a new single-bit ternary filtering system. In Proceedings of ATNAC’03, Australia.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haykin, S. (2009). Communication systems. In B. Zobrist (Ed.), Baseband pulse transmission (pp. 247–253). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hussain, Z. M., Sadik, A., & O’Shea, P. (2011). Digital signal processing: An introduction with MATLAB and applications. New York: Springer.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pathan, A., & Memon, T. D. (2017). An optimised 3 × 3 shift and add multiplier on FPGA. In 14th IEEE international BHURBAN conference on applied sciences (IBCAST’17), Pakistan.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pathan, A., Memon, T. D., Keerio, S., & Kalwar, I. (2016). FPGA Based performance analysis of multiplier policies for FIR filter. In IEEE international conference on advances in electrical, electronic and system engineering, Putrajaya, Malaysia, pp. 17–20.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Athar, S., Siddiqi, M. A., & Masud, S. (2012). Teaching and research in FPGA based digital signal processing in Xilinx system generator. In IEEE international conference on acoustics, speech and signal processing (ICASSP), Japan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electronic Engineering, Institute of Information and Communication TechnologyMehran University of Engineering and Technology (MUET)JamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.College of Computer Science and MathematicsUniversity of KufaKufa, NajafIraq
  3. 3.School of EngineeringEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia

Personalised recommendations