By simulation using NS-3 we evaluated the performance of voice, video and web traffic sharing a wireless access network connected to a wired core. We compared the performance in terms of end-to-end delay, end-to-end delay variation, average throughput and loss percentage. For the wireless access network, we considered cases when it consisted of a single technology type, e.g., WiFi (IEEE 802.11), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) and LTE, and when it was heterogeneous, i.e., when the three technologies coexisted and simultaneously shared the same IP core. We attempted to ascertain the impact of this type of heterogeneity on end-to-end performance. It was found that this heterogeneity in the wireless access portion of the network can improve, degrade or have no impact on application performance depending on the network conditions and the application itself. Some key research challenges in Fifth Generation wireless communications are heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks (HC-RANS), backward compatiblity with 4G/3G networks and providing low-latency and QoE. To achieve end-to-end QoS guarantees in such settings the interface with the core must also be addressed, especially when backward compatibility is to be assured. This simulation study attempts to highlight the impact of this type of heterogeneity on network performance.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Domingo, M. (2006). Service differentiation via adaptive gateway discovery in ad hoc networks connected to wired networks. In F. Boavida, T. Plagemann, B. Stiller, C. Westphal, & E. Monteiro (Eds.), NETWORKING 2006. Networking technologies, services, and protocols; performance of computer and communication networks; mobile and wireless communications systems, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 3976, pp. 13–24).
Koivula, M., Taramaa, M., & Ruuska, P. (2007). Differentiated services and vertical handovers supporting multimedia in heterogeneous networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE 18th international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC 2007), 2007 (pp. 1–5).
Malila, B., & Ventura, N. (2013). Performance evaluation of a next generation network prototype using WiMax as an access network. In Proceedings of 2013 IEEE EUROCON (pp. 407–414).
Zhu, J., Vannithamby, R., Rodbro, C., Chen, M., & Vang Andersen, S. (2012) Improving QoE for Skype video call in mobile broadband network. In Proceedings of the IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM), 2012 (pp. 1938–1943).
Friderikos, V., Wang, L., Iwamura, M., & Aghvami, H. (2004). A rate adaptation scheme for out of profile packets in a DiffServ enabled CDMA network. In Z. Mammeri & P. Lorenz (Eds.), High speed networks and multimedia communications, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 3079, pp. 446–458).
Chassot, C., Lozes, A., Racaru, F., & Diaz, M. (2006). Signalling concepts in heterogeneous IP multi-domains networks. In Y. Koucheryavy, J. Harju, & V. Iversen (Eds.), Next generation teletraffic and wired/wireless advanced networking, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 4003, pp. 259–270).
Koo, H. L., Roh, B. H., Park, Y. K., Kim, S. E., & Kim, Y. S. (2009). Data delivery with end-to-end QoS guarantee in tactical network interconnected with wireless ad-hoc network and heterogeneous networks. In Proceedings of the 11th international conference on advanced communication technology (ICACT 2009), 2009 (Vol. 01, pp. 804–809).
Orefice, P., Paura, L., & Scarpiello, A. (2010). Inter-vehicle communication QoS management for disaster recovery. In D. Giusto, A. Iera, G. Morabito, & L. Atzori (Eds.), The internet of things. New York, NY: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-1674-7_20#citeas.
Vucevic, N., Bernardo, F., Umbert, A., & Budzisz, L. (2007). Evaluation of perceived QoS with multimedia applications in a heterogeneous wireless network. In Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on wireless communication systems (ISWCS 2007), 2007 (pp. 102–106).
Umbert, A., Budzisz, L., Vucevic, N., & Bernardo, F. (2007). An all-IP heterogeneous wireless testbed for RAT selection and e2e QoS evaluation. In Proceedings of the 2007 international conference on next generation mobile applications, services and technologies (NGMAST ’07), 2007 (pp. 310–315).
Galinina, O., Pyattaev, A., Andreev, S., Dohler, M., & Koucheryavy, Y. (2015). 5G Multi-RAT LTE-wifi ultra-dense small cells: Performance dynamics, architecture, and trends. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 33(6), 1224.
Andreev, S., Gerasimenko, M., Galinina, O., Koucheryavy, Y., Himayat, N., Yeh, S. P., et al. (2014). Intelligent access network selection in converged multi-radio heterogeneous networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 21(6), 86.
Li, J., & Cui, Q. F. (2006). The QoS research of VoIP over WLAN. In Proceedings of the 2006 international conference on communications, circuits and systems, 2006 (Vol. 3, pp. 1782–1785).
Elmangosh, A., Ashibani, M., & Shatwan, F. (2007). The interworking between EDCA 802.11e and DiffServ. In Proceedings of the IEEE international performance, computing, and communications conference (IPCCC 2007), 2007 (pp. 545–550).
Ke, C. H., Shieh, C. K., Chilamkurti, N., & Shirwadkar, U. (2006). A new framework for H.264 video delivery over heterogeneous networks. In Proceedings of the international conference on networking, international conference on systems and international conference on mobile communications and learning technologies (ICN/ICONS/MCL 2006), 2006 (pp. 109–109).
Lee, M., Kwon, B., & Copeland, J. (2010). Cross-layer design of DiffServ architecture for end-to-end QoS in IEEE 802.16 multi-hop mesh/relay networks with IEEE 802.11e WLANs. In Proceedings of the 2010 7th IEEE consumer communications and networking conference (CCNC), 2010 (pp. 1–5).
Domingo, M., & Remondo, D. (2004). Analysis of VBR VoIP traffic for ad hoc connectivity with a fixed IP network. In Proceedings of the IEEE 60th vehicular technology conference (VTC2004-Fall), 2004 (pp. 2834–2837).
Domingo, M., & Remondo, D. (2004). A cooperation model between ad hoc networks and fixed networks for service differentiation. In Proceedings of the 29th annual IEEE international conference on local computer networks, 2004 (pp. 692–693).
Villaln, J., Cuenca, P., & Orozco-Barbosa, L. (2007). On the capabilities of IEEE 802.11e for multimedia communications over heterogeneous 802.11/802.11e WLANs. Telecommunication Systems, 36(1–3), 27.
Munir, A., & Wong, V. (2007). Interworking architectures for IP multimedia subsystems. Mobile Networks and Applications, 12(5–6), 296.
Ryu, M., Kim, Y., & Park, H. (2008). Systematic QoS class mapping framework over multiple heterogeneous networks. In S. Balandin, D. Moltchanov, & Y. Koucheryavy (Eds.), Next generation teletraffic and wired/wireless advanced networking, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 5174, pp. 212–221).
T. Pliakas, G. Kormentzas, & C. Skianis. (2006). End-to-end QoS issues of MPEG4-FGS video streaming traffic delivery in an IP/UMTS network. In A. Helmy, B. Jennings, L. Murphy, & T. Pfeifer (Eds.), textitAutonomic management of mobile multimedia services, lecture notes in computer science (Vol. 4267, pp. 247–255).
NS-3. NS-3 network simulator. https://www.nsnam.org/.
T.U.B. Telecommunication Networks Group. Trace files movies- mr. bean. http://www-tkn.ee.tu-berlin.de/research/trace/pics/FrameTrace/mp4/Verbose_bean.dat.
I. ResiliNets Research Group, U. Telecommunication Technology Center (ITTC), The University of Kansas Lawrence. HTTP model. https://codereview.appspot.com/4940041
Agiwal, M., Roy, A., & Saxena, N. (2016). Next generation 5G wireless networks: A comprehensive survey. IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 18(3), 1617.
About this article
Cite this article
Adams, R.V. Performance Evaluation of Video, Voice and Web Traffic Over Heterogeneous Access Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 99, 1195–1215 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-017-5172-5
- Differentiated services
- Performance evaluation