Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 267–281 | Cite as

GSHMAC: Green and Secure Hybrid Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Network

  • Pranav M. Pawar
  • Rasmus H. Nielsen
  • Neeli R. Prasad
  • Ramjee Prasad


The cost efficiency of wireless platforms and their easy deployment enable the applicability of it in widespread application domains. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are not excluded from it. Their application domains vary from industrial monitoring to military applications. A WSN is a resource-constrained network and energy of the WSN node is a valuable resource. Like every other network, WSNs are also vulnerable to security attacks. A security attack can results in networks consuming more resources, leading to earlier depletion of node energy. A significant part of the resource consumption in a WSN is controlled by the medium access control (MAC) mechanism. This paper focuses on WSN MAC mechanisms and countermeasures for attacks targeting the MAC layer in a WSN. Denial of sleep attacks are the most relevant for WSN MAC as these types of attacks have shattered effects, which bring down the sensor lifetime from years to days. This paper proposes a secure hybrid MAC mechanism, Green and Secure Hybrid Medium Access Control (GSHMAC) to overcome the devastating effect of WSN MAC attacks. The proposed mechanism provides features such as collision threshold-based MAC mode control and countermeasures on WSN MAC using internal MAC mechanisms. GSHMAC shows improved energy-efficiency, delay, and throughput in the presence of attacks, as compared with state-of-art secure MAC mechanisms.


Wireless sensor network (WSN) Medium access control (MAC) Cluster Hybrid-MAC Security Denial of sleep attack Energy efficiency Throughput Delay 


  1. 1.
    Anastasi, G., Conti, M., Di Francesco, M., & Passarella, A. (2009). Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: A survey. Ad hoc Networks, 7(3), 537–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen, X., Makki, K., Yen, K., & Pissinou, N. (2009). Sensor network security: A survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 11(2), 52–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pawar, P. M., Nielsen, R. H., Prasad, N. R., Ohmori, S., & Prasad, R. (2012). Activity modelling and comparative evaluation of WSN-MAC security attacks. Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility, 1(3), 205–225.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abbasi, A. A., & Younis, M. (2007). A survey on clustering algorithms for wireless sensor network. Elsevier Computer Communication, 30(14–15), 2826–2841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pawar, P.M., Nielsen, R.H., Prasad, N.R., Ohmori, S., Prasad, R. (2011). Hybrid mechanisms: Towards an efficient wireless sensor network medium access control. In WPMC, Brest, France (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eisler, M., Labiaga, R., Stern, H. (2001). Chapter 17: Network performance analysis. In M. Loukides (Ed.), Managing NFS and NIS (pp. 168–216). Sebastopol: O’Reilly.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ren, Q., Liang, Q. (2004). Secure media access control (MAC) in wireless sensor networks: intrusion detections and countermeasures. In PIMRC, Barcelona, Spain (pp. 3025–3029).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brownfield M., Gupta, Y., Davis N. (2005). Wireless sensor network denial of sleep attack. In IEEE IAS, West Point, NY, USA (pp. 356–364).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raymond D.R., Midkiff S.F. (2007). Clustered adaptive rate limiting: defeating denial-of-sleep attacks in wireless sensor networks. In MILCOM, Orlando, FL, USA (pp. 1–7).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raymond, D. R., Marchany, R. C., Brownfield, M. I., & Midkiff, S. F. (2009). Effects of denial-of-sleep attacks on wireless sensor network MAC protocols. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 58(1), 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kulkarni, R.V., Venayagamoorthy, G.K., Thakur, A.V., Madria, S.K. (2009). Generalized neuron based secure media access control protocol for wireless sensor networks. In MCDM, Nashville, TN, USA (pp. 16–22).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen C., Hui, L., Pei, Q., Ning, L., Qingquan, P. (2009). An effective scheme for defending denial-of-sleep attack in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of IEEE 5th International Conference on Information Assurance and Security, Xi’an, China (pp. 446–449).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rao, P.S., Varma, K.V.S.R.P., Satapati, R., Vamsidhar, E. (2010). Multilayer perceptron based secure media access control protocol for wireless sensor networks. In ICCIC, Coimbatore, India (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hsueh, C.-T., Wen, C.-Y., Ouyang,Y.-C. (2012). Two-tier receiver-initiated secure scheme for hierarchical wireless sensor networks. In ITST’ 12, Taipei, Taiwan (pp. 254–258).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bhattasali, T., Chaki, R., & Sanyal, S. (2012). Sleep deprivation attack detection in wireless sensor network. International Journal of Computer Applications, 40(15), 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Qian, Y., Zhou, J., Qian, L., Chen, K. (2006). Highly scalable multihop clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks. In ICCCAS’ 06, Guilin, Guangzi, China (pp. 1527–1531).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pawar, P.M., Nielsen, R.H., Prasad, N.R., Ohmori, S., Prasad, R. (2012) GCF: Green conflict free scheduling algorithm for WSN. In ICC-E2Nets’ 12, Ottawa, Canada (pp. 5795–5799).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pawar, P.M., Nielsen, R.H., Prasad, N.R., Prasad, R. (2014). A hybrid algorithm for efficient wireless sensor network time synchronization. In Wireless VITAE’ 14, Aalborg, Denmark (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pranav M. Pawar
    • 1
  • Rasmus H. Nielsen
    • 2
  • Neeli R. Prasad
    • 3
  • Ramjee Prasad
    • 4
  1. 1.Smt. Kashibai Navale College of EngineeringPuneIndia
  2. 2.Moviemento GroupSunnyvaleUSA
  3. 3.International Technological University (ITU)San JoseUSA
  4. 4.Department of Business Development and TechnologyAarhus UniversityÅrhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations