Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 3673–3683 | Cite as

Miniaturization of Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Communication: A Novel Fractal Geometry Approach

  • Neeraj RaoEmail author
  • V. Dinesh Kumar


This article proposes a novel design based on fractal geometries to miniaturize the antenna. The proposed geometry is inspired from a combination of two fractal geometries, Giuseppe Peano and Minkowski fractal geometry. The dielectric material used is Roggers TMM4 lossy, with a dielectric constant of εr = 4.5 the proposed geometry shows miniaturization by shifting the lowest resonant frequency towards the lower frequency side. The geometry is made by addition of the scaled version of base geometry at the vertices and reducing the total dimension so as to maintain the outer dimensions constant. The maximum achieved miniaturization in terms of % is 37.25%. The detailed study for different scaling ratios and different iterations has been performed and mentioned in the paper.


Microstrip patch antenna Fractal patch antenna Fractal geometry Giuseppe Peano Minkowski fractal Miniaturization Gain 


  1. 1.
    Mandelbrot, B. B. (1982). The fractal geometry of nature. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim, Y., & Jaggard, D. L. (1986). The fractal random array. IEEE Proceedings, 74, 1278–1280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cohen, N. (1995). Fractal antennas part 1. Communications Quarterly, 9, 7–22.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen, N. (1996). Fractal antennas part 2: A discussion of relevant, but disparate qualities. Communications Quarterly, Summer, 53–66.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Puente-Baliarda, C., et al. (1998). On the behavior of the Sierpinski multiband fractal antenna. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 46(4), 517–524.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Werner, D. H., & Ganguly, S. (2003). An overview of fractal antenna engineering research. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 45(1), 38–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naghshvarian-Jahromi, M., & Komjani, N. (2008). Novel fractal monopole wideband antenna. Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, 22(2-3), 195–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gianvittorio, J. P., & Rahmat-Samii, Y. (2002). Fractal antennas: A novel antenna miniaturization technique, and applications. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 44(1), 20–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Balanis, C. A. (2005). Antenna theory, analysis and design (3rd ed). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and ManufacturingJabalpurIndia

Personalised recommendations