Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 95, Issue 4, pp 4807–4822 | Cite as

Effect of Pilot Contamination Over Diversity Gain in Multi-cell MU-MIMO Systems

  • Dongming Wang
  • Xiaoxia Duan
  • Juan Cao
  • Zhenling Zhao
  • Chunguo Li
  • Xiaohu You


In this paper, we investigate the diversity performance of multi-cell multi-user multiple-input multiple-output wireless system with linear minimum mean-squared error receiver. We consider imperfect channel state information at the receiver, and in particular we focus on the effect of pilot contamination. With the equivalent channel model, we study the outage probability of the uplink transmission, and mathematically analyze the diversity performance. We successfully derive the closed-form expression of the outage probability in finite signal to noise ratio (SNR) regime, and then the optimal pilot-to-data power ratio is studied. It is proved that due to pilot contamination, diversity gain approaches to zero with the SNR growing to positive infinite.


Pilot contamination Diversity gain Multi-user multi-input multi-output (MU-MIMO) 



This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos. 61501113, 61372100), Jiangsu Provincial Natural Science Foundation (Grant No.BK20150630), the Science and Technology Projects of Nantong under grant BK2012024, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China under Grant 2014DFT10290.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dongming Wang
    • 1
  • Xiaoxia Duan
    • 1
  • Juan Cao
    • 2
  • Zhenling Zhao
    • 1
  • Chunguo Li
    • 1
  • Xiaohu You
    • 1
  1. 1.National Mobile Communications Research LaboratorySoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Electronics and InformationNantong UniversityNantongChina

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