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Multi-factor and Distributed Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

One of important issues in wireless sensor networks is how to effectively use the limited node energy to prolong the lifetime of the networks. Clustering is a promising approach in wireless sensor networks, which can increase the network lifetime and scalability. However, in existing clustering algorithms, too heavy burden of cluster heads may lead to rapid death of the sensor nodes. The location of function nodes and the number of the neighbor nodes are also not carefully considered during clustering. In this paper, a multi-factor and distributed clustering routing protocol MFDCRP based on communication nodes is proposed by combining cluster-based routing protocol and multi-hop transmission. Communication nodes are introduced to relay the multi-hop transmission and elect cluster heads in order to ease the overload of cluster heads. The protocol optimizes the election of cluster nodes by combining various factors such as the residual energy of nodes, the distance between cluster heads and the base station, and the number of the neighbor nodes. The local optimal path construction algorithm for multi-hop transmission is also improved. Simulation results show that MFDCRP can effectively save the energy of sensor nodes, balance the network energy distribution, and greatly prolong the network lifetime, compared with the existing protocols.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61472139, the key project of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission under Grant 11511504403, and a research grant made to East China University of Science and Technology by Shanghai Education Commission. The authors are also grateful to the anonymous referees for their insightful and valuable comments and suggestions.

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Correspondence to Jian-hua Huang.

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Huang, J., Zhao, Z., Yuan, Y. et al. Multi-factor and Distributed Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 95, 2127–2142 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-017-4045-2

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Keywords

  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Network lifetime
  • Cluster heads
  • Multi-hop