Advertisement

Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 96, Issue 4, pp 5035–5059 | Cite as

A Low Duty Cycle MAC Protocol for Directional Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Fernaz Narin Nur
  • Selina Sharmin
  • Md. Abdur Razzaque
  • Md. Shariful Islam
  • Mohammad Mehedi Hassan
Article

Abstract

Directional communication in wireless sensor networks minimizes interference and thereby increases reliability and throughput of the network. Hence, directional wireless sensor networks (DWSNs) are fastly attracting the interests of researchers and industry experts around the globe. However, in DWSNs the conventional medium access control protocols face some new challenges including the synchronization among the nodes, directional hidden terminal and deafness problems, etc. For taking the advantages of spatial reusability and increased coverage from directional communications, a low duty cycle directional Medium Access control protocol for mobility based DWSNs, termed as DCD-MAC, is developed in this paper. To reduce energy consumption due to idle listening, duty cycling is extensively used in WSNs. In DCD-MAC, each pair of parent and child sensor nodes performs synchronization with each other before data communication. The nodes in the network schedule their time of data transmissions in such a way that the number of collisions occurred during transmissions from multiple nodes is minimized. The sensor nodes are kept active only when the nodes need to communicate with each other. The DCD-MAC exploits localized information of mobile nodes in a distributed manner and thus it gives weighted fair access of transmission slots to the nodes. As a final point, we have studied the performance of our proposed protocol through extensive simulations in NS-3 and the results show that the DCD-MAC gives better reliability, throughput, end-to-end delay, network lifetime and overhead comparing to the related directional MAC protocols.

Keywords

Wireless sensor networks Medium access control Directional antenna Synchronization Duty cycle Spatial reuse 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding of this research through the Research Group Project no. RGP-281. Special thanks to the ICT Division of the Government of Bangladesh for student fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Winters, J. H. (1998). Smart antennas for wireless systems. Personal Communications, IEEE, 5(1), 23–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ramanathan, R. (2001). On the performance of ad hoc networks with beamforming antennas. In Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking&Amp; computing, MobiHoc (pp. 95–105). ACM.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akyildiz, I. F., Melodia, T., & Chowdhury, K. R. (2007). A survey on wireless multimedia sensor networks. Computer Network, 51, 921–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cai, L. X., Cai, L., Shen, X., & Mark, J. W. (2007). Efficient resource management for mmwave wpans. In Wireless communications and networking conference, 2007. IEEE (pp. 3816–3821).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Islam, Md., Ahasanuzzaman, Md., Razzaque, Md., Hassan, M. M., & Alamri, A, et al. (2014). A distributed clustering algorithm for target coverage in directional sensor networks. In Wireless and mobile, 2014 IEEE Asia Pacific conference on (pp. 42–47). IEEE.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sharmin, S., Nur, F. N., Razzaque, M. A., & Rahman, M. M. (2015). Network lifetime aware area coverage for clustered directional sensor networks. In Networking systems and security (NSysS), 2015 international conference on (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mofijul Islam, Md., Ahasanuzzaman, Md., Abdur Razzaque, Md., Hassan, M. M., Alelaiwi, A., & Xiang, Y. (2015). Target coverage through distributed clustering in directional sensor networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2015(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Le, T. A., Hong, C. S., Abdur Razzaque, Md., Lee, S., & Jung, H. (2012). EC-MTCP: An energy-aware congestion control algorithm for multipath tcp. IEEE Communications Letters, 16(2), 275–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Du, S., Saha, A. K., & Johnson, D. B. (2007). RMAC: A routing-enhanced duty-cycle mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In INFOCOM 2007. 26th IEEE international conference on computer communications. IEEE (pp. 1478–1486).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Dam, T., & Langendoen, K. (2003). An adaptive energy-efficient mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 1st international conference on embedded networked sensor systems, SenSys (pp. 171–180). ACM.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Polastre, J., Hill, J., & Culler, D. (2004). Versatile low power media access for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on embedded networked sensor systems, SenSys ’04 (pp. 95–107). New York, NY: ACM.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guerroumi, M., Pathan, A.-S. K., Badache, N., & Moussaoui, S. (2014). On the medium access control protocols suitable for wireless sensor networks-a survey. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security, 6(2), 89.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Korakis, T., Jakllari, G., & Tassiulas, L. (2003). A mac protocol for full exploitation of directional antennas in ad-hoc wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM international symposium on mobile ad hoc networking&Amp; computing, MobiHoc (pp. 98–107). New York, NY: ACM.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ko, Y.-B., Shankarkumar, V., & Vaidya, N. F. (2000). Medium access control protocols using directional antennas in ad hoc networks. In INFOCOM 2000, proceedings. IEEE (Vol. 1, pp. 13–21).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdullah, A. A., Cai, L., & Gebali, F. (2012). DSDMAC: Dual sensing directional mac protocol for ad hoc networks with directional antennas. Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, 61(3), 1266–1275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gossain, H., Cordeiro, C.,  & Agrawal, D. P. (2005). MDA: an efficient directional mac scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. In Global telecommunications conference, 2005. GLOBECOM ’05. IEEE (Vol. 6, pp. 5–3637).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jakllari, G., Broustis, I., Korakis, T., Krishnamurthy, S. V., & Tassiulas, L. (2005). Handling asymmetry in gain in directional antenna equipped ad hoc networks. In Personal, indoor and mobile radio communications, 2005. PIMRC 2005. IEEE 16th international symposium on (Vol. 2, pp. 1284–1288).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jakllari, G., Luo, W., & Krishnamurthy, S. V. (2007). An integrated neighbor discovery and mac protocol for ad hocnetworks using directional antennas. In IEEE transactions on wireless communications (pp. 11–21).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ali, A., Huiqiang, W., Hongwu, L., & Chen, X. (2014). A survey of mac protocols design strategies and techniques in wireless ad hoc networks. Journal of Communications, 9(1), 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cordeiro, C. D. M., Gossain, H., & Agrawal, D. P. (2004). A directional antenna medium access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. Journal of Communication and Information Systems, 19(3), 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karapistoli, E., Gragopoulos, I., Tsetsinas, I., & Pavlidou, F.-N. (2009). A mac protocol for low-rate uwb wireless sensor networks using directional antennas. Computer Network, 53(7), 961–972.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adere, K., & Murthy, G. R. (2010). Solving the hidden and exposed terminal problems using directional-antenna based mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Wireless and optical communications networks (WOCN), 2010 7th international conference on (pp. 1–5).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang, S., & Datta, A. (2005). A directional-antenna based mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the 2005 international conference on computational science and its applications—volume part II (pp. 686–695).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Murawski, R., Felemban, E., Ekici, E., Park, S., Yoo, S., Lee, K., et al. (2012). Neighbor discovery in wireless networks with sectored antennas. Ad Hoc Networks, 10(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nur, F. N., Sharmin, S., Razzaque, M. A., & Islam. M. S. (2015). A duty cycle directional mac protocol for wireless sensor networks. In Networking systems and security (NSysS), 2015 international conference on (pp. 1–9).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu, H., Nabar, S., & Poovendran, R. (2011). An energy framework for the network simulator 3 (ns-3). In Proceedings of the 4th international ICST conference on simulation tools and techniques (pp. 222–230). ICST.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choudhury, R. R., & Vaidya, N. F. (2004). Deafness: A MAC problem in ad hoc networks when using directional antennas. In Network protocols, 2004. ICNP 2004. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE international conference on (pp. 283–292).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Takata, M., Bandai, M.,  & Watanabe, T. (2007). A mac protocol with directional antennas for deafness avoidance in ad hoc networks. In Global telecommunications conference, 2007. GLOBECOM ’07. IEEE (pp. 620–625).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Korakis, T., Jakllari, G., & Tassiulas, L. (2008). CDR-MAC: A protocol for full exploitation of directional antennas in ad hoc wireless networks. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 7(2), 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Takata, M., Bandai, M.,  & Watanabe, T. (2006). A receiver-initiated directional mac protocol for handling deafness in ad hoc networks. In Communications, 2006. ICC ’06. IEEE international conference on (Vol. 9, pp. 4089–4095).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bianchi, G. (2000). Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function. Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, 18(3):535–547.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Felemban, E., Vural, S., Murawski, R., Ekici, E., Lee, Kangwoo, Moon, YoungBag, & Park, Sangjoon. (2010). SAMAC: A cross-layer communication protocol for sensor networks with sectored antennas. Mobile Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 9:1072–1088.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nasipuri, A., Ye, S., You, J., & Hiromoto, R. E. (2000). A mac protocol for mobile ad hoc networks using directional antennas. In Wireless Communications and Networking Confernce, WCNC. 2000 IEEE, 3, pp. 1214–1219.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Janaswamy, R. (2001). Radiowave propagation and smart antennas for wireless communications. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernaz Narin Nur
    • 1
  • Selina Sharmin
    • 1
  • Md. Abdur Razzaque
    • 1
  • Md. Shariful Islam
    • 2
  • Mohammad Mehedi Hassan
    • 3
  1. 1.Green Networking Research (GNR) Group, Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Information Technology (IIT)University of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.College of Computer and Information SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations