Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

End-to-End Link Reliable Energy Efficient Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

  • 349 Accesses

  • 7 Citations


Among the many multipath routing protocols, the AOMDV is widely used in highly dynamic ad hoc networks because of its generic feature. Since the communicating nodes in AOMDV are prone to link failures and route breaks due to the selection of multiple routes between any source and destination pair based on minimal hop count which does not ensure end-to-end reliable data transmission. To overcome such problems, we propose a novel node disjoint multipath routing protocol called End-to-End Link Reliable Energy Efficient Multipath Routing (E2E-LREEMR) protocol by extending AOMDV. The E2E-LREEMR finds multiple link reliable energy efficient paths between any source and destination pair for data transmission using two metrics such as Path-Link Quality Estimator and Path-Node Energy Estimator. We evaluate the performance of E2E-LREEMR protocol using NS 2.34 with varying network flows under random way-point mobility model and compare it with AOMDV routing protocol in terms of Quality of Service metrics. When there is a hike in network flows, the E2E-LREEMR reduces 30.43 % of average end-to-end delay, 29.44 % of routing overhead, 32.65 % of packet loss ratio, 18.79 % of normalized routing overhead and 12.87 % of energy consumption. It also increases rather 10.26 % of packet delivery ratio and 6.96 % of throughput than AOMDV routing protocol.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    Royer, E. M., & Toh, C. K. (1999). A review of current routing protocols for ad-hoc mobile wireless networks. IEEE Personal Communications, 6(2), 46–55.

  2. 2.

    Abolhasan, M., Wysocki, T., & Eryk Dutkiewicz, E. (2004). A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 2(1), 1–22.

  3. 3.

    Corson, S., & Macker, J. Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET): Routing protocol performance issues and evaluation considerations. In IETF WG Charter. http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html.

  4. 4.

    Sharma, A., & Vashistha, S. (2014). Improving the QOS in MANET by enhancing the routing technique of AOMDV protocol. In ICT and critical infrastructure: Proceedings of the 48th annual convention of computer society of India—Vol I advances in intelligent systems and computing (Vol. 248, pp. 381–392).

  5. 5.

    King, P. J. B., Etorban, A., & Ibrahim, I. S. (2007). A DSDV-based multipath routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. In In Proceedings of the 8th annual post graduate symposium on the convergence of telecommunications, networking and broadcasting. The School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom (pp. 93–98).

  6. 6.

    Yi, J., Adnanea, A., Davida, S., & Parrein, B. (2011). Multipath optimized link state routing for mobile ad hoc networks. Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks Journal, 9(1), 28–47.

  7. 7.

    Leung, R., Liu, J., Poon, E., Chan, A., & Li, B. (2001). MP-DSR: A QoS-aware multi-path dynamic source routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 26th IEEE annual conference on local computer networks (pp. 132–141).

  8. 8.

    Marina, M. K., & Das, S. R. (2001). Ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing. International Journal of Wireless Communications And Mobile Computing, 6(2), 969–988.

  9. 9.

    Perkins, C. E., & Royer, E. M. (1999). Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In Proceedings of IEEE workshop on mobile computing systems and applications, New Orleans, LA (pp. 90–100).

  10. 10.

    Periyasamy, P., & Karthikeyan, E. (2014). Energy optimized ad hoc on-demand multipath routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications (IJISA), 6(11), 36–41.

  11. 11.

    Liu, Y., Guo, L., Ma, H., & Jiang, T. (2008). Energy efficient on demand multipath routing protocol for multi-hop ad hoc networks. In 10th IEEE international symposium on spread spectrum and applications (ISSSTA-08), Italy (pp. 592–597).

  12. 12.

    Periyasamy, P., & Karthikeyan, E. (2015). Link reliable energy efficient AOMDV routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC), Inderscience (Article in Press).

  13. 13.

    Haas, Z., & Pearlman, M. (2002). The zone routing protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc networks. In IETF Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-04.txt.

  14. 14.

    Tang, S., Zhang, B., Watanabe, M., & Tanaka, S. (2005). A link heterogeneity-aware on-demand routing (LHAOR) protocol utilizing local update and RSSI information. IEICE Transactions on Communications, 88–B(9), 3588–3597.

  15. 15.

    Khimsara, S., Kambhatla, K. K. R., Hwang, J., Kumar, S., & Matyjas, J. D. (2009). AM-AOMDV: Adaptive multi-metric ad-hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing. In Workshop on cross-layer design in wireless mobile ad hoc networks, 1st international conference on ad hoc networks (AdHocNets’09), September 23–25, Niagara Falls, Canada.

  16. 16.

    Vasseur, J. P., Kim, M., Pister, K., Dejean, N., & Barthel, D. (2012). Routing metrics used for path calculation in low-power and lossy networks. http://tools.ietf.org/pdf/rfc6551

  17. 17.

    Couto, D. S. J. D., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., & Morris, R. (2003). A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In MobiCom ’03: Proceedings of the 9th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking. ACM, New York (pp. 134–146).

  18. 18.

    Kim, M.-K., & Ngo, H. P. (2012). MRFR - Multipath-based routing protocol with fast-recovery of failures on MANETs. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 6(12), 271–287.

  19. 19.

    Jin, Y.-L., Miao, H.-J., Ge, Q., & Zhou, C. (2011). Expected transmission energy route metric for wireless mesh senor networks. International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting, Hindawi Publishing Corporation (pp. 1–7).

  20. 20.

    Zhou, J., Jacobsson, M., Onur, E., & Niemegeers, I. (2009). A novel link quality assessment method for mobile multi-rate multi-hop wireless networks. In Proceedings of IEEE CCNC’09 (pp. 936–940).

  21. 21.

    Draves, R., Padhye, J., & Zill, B. (2004). Comparison of routing metrics for multi-hop wireless networks. New York: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM.

  22. 22.

    Kim, S., Lee, O., Choi, S., & Lee, S.-J. (2011). Comparative analysis of link quality metrics and routing protocols for optimal route construction in wireless mesh networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 9(7), 1343–1358.

  23. 23.

    Issariyakul, T., & Hossain, E. (2009). Introduction to network simulator NS2 (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer.

  24. 24.

    Periyasamy, P., & Karthikeyan, E. (2012). Impact of variation in pause time and network load in AODV and AOMDV protocols. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science (IJITCS), 4(3), 38–44.

  25. 25.

    Periyasamy, P., & Karthikeyan, E. (2013). Performance comparison and evaluation of different multipath routing protocols based on various scenario and traffic patterns for mobile ad hoc networks. International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security (IJCNIS), 5(1), 24–32.

  26. 26.

    Roy, R. R. (2011). Handbook of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for Mobility Models. Heidelberg: Springer.

  27. 27.

    Fall, K., & Varadhan, K. (2012). The ns Manual, University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute (ISI), [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns-documentation.html.

  28. 28.

    NS2, The Network Simulator version 2.34, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

  29. 29.

    NS2 Manual, NS-2 with Wireless and Mobility Extensions, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to P. Periyasamy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Periyasamy, P., Karthikeyan, E. End-to-End Link Reliable Energy Efficient Multipath Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 92, 825–841 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-016-3579-z

Download citation


  • Mobile ad hoc networks
  • Multipath routing
  • Link Quality Estimator
  • Node Energy Estimator
  • QoS