Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 90, Issue 4, pp 1859–1887 | Cite as

A Residual Energy Aware Schedule Scheme for WSNs Employing Adjustable Awake/Sleep Duty Cycle

  • Renning Xie
  • Anfeng LiuEmail author
  • Jianliang Gao


In this paper, we systematically analyze the relationship among expected energy expenditure, packet loss ratio, end to end delay and lifetime of wireless sensor networks. Firstly, we demonstrate that optimized duty cycle schemes can achieve a trade-off among the lifetime of network, transmission delay and packet loss ratio. Then, a residual energy aware with adjustable duty cycle scheme (READC) is proposed based on the fact that energy consumption is higher in the region near sink, while it is lower in the area far away from the sink. In READC scheme, sensor nodes near sink adopt appropriate duty cycles to meet with the requirement of forwarding data, while the higher duty cycles are needed in far-sink area. In this way, the residual energy of the nodes can be fully used. Meanwhile, transmission delay and packet loss ratio can also be reduced. Through our extensive theoretical analysis and simulation study, we demonstrate that compared with fixed duty cycle schemes, the READC scheme can reduce the transmission delay from 10.1 to 40.35 % and the packet loss ratio from 7.7 to 71.63 % without impacting the lifetime of network.


Wireless sensor networks Adjustable duty cycle Lifetime of network Transmission delay Packet loss ratio 



This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61379110, 61073104, 61572528, 61272494, 61572526), The National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (2014CB046305).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Information Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangshaChina

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