Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 89, Issue 2, pp 521–537 | Cite as

Performance of a Three-Dimensional Antenna Array and Its Application in DOA Estimation

  • Yalin WangEmail author
  • Jie Zhou
  • Hisakazu Kikuchi


In this paper, we develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) multiantenna array for enhancing the performance of multiple input multiple output systems. This array is composed of two uniform circular arrays (UCAs). A frequency nonselective Rayleigh fading channel model is introduced to calculate the spatial fading correlation (SFC) and capacity of a multipath channel. Then, the influence of the rotation angle \(\phi _0\) and the perpendicular distance h of the upper UCA in a double uniform circular array (DUCA) with reference to the lower UCA and the radius r of the DUCA on the SFC and the capacity are investigated. In addition, the DUCA is applied to a multiple signal classification algorithm in order to estimate the direction of arrival (DOA). Simulation results show that \(\phi _0\) which results in the minimum correlation and the maximum capacity depends on the angle of arrival, and the increase in h and r enhances the capacity performance. However, when \(h/\lambda >1/2, h\) has little effect on the capacity. Comparing the spatial spectrum and the root mean square error of the DUCA with a general uniform linear array, UCA, and 2-L array, this paper shows that 3D antenna arrays have significant advantages in DOA estimation.


Capacity Double uniform circular array MIMO MUSIC algorithm Spatial fading correlation 



The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive comments, which greatly helped improve this paper. They also acknowledge Professor Fumiyuki Adachi for his help in completing this paper, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(No. 61372128 and 61471153) and the Major Program of the Natural Science Foundation of Institution of Higher Education of Jiangsu Province (No.14KJA510001).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information ProcessingNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

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