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Ant Colony Optimization Based Orthogonal Directional Proactive–Reactive Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are important in addressing the various quality-of-service (QoS) issues pertaining to different applications. The most important QoS issues while designing routing protocols for WSN are energy awareness, scalability and network lifetime. However to deal with these issues the solutions provided in related literature have certain inherent disadvantages like high control overhead, low packet delivery ratio and requirement of global location information. In order to resolve these issues, we propose an orthogonal transmission based scalable, lightweight and energy aware routing protocol named as OD-PPRP which does not require global location information and has low control overhead. The proposed protocol OD-PRRP has the characteristics of both reactive and proactive routing protocols and utilizes fuzzy logic and Ant Colony Optimization to identify energy efficient and optimal paths. The simulation results show in both static and dynamic environment, OD-PRRP has better network lifetime, low end to end transmission delay, less overhead and high packet delivery ratio than other state of art QoS aware routing protocol viz. EARQ, EAODV and EEABR.

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Correspondence to Aarti Jain.

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Jain, A., Reddy, B.V.R. Ant Colony Optimization Based Orthogonal Directional Proactive–Reactive Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 85, 179–205 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-015-2733-3

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Keywords

  • Ant colony optimization
  • Energy efficient routing
  • Fuzzy logistics
  • Optimal hop length
  • Orthogonal transmission
  • Wireless sensor networks