Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 84, Issue 4, pp 2571–2598 | Cite as

An Effective and Robust Secure Remote User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Using Smart Cards in Wireless Communication Systems



Authentication protocol in wireless communication systems is important to protect the sensitive information against a malicious adversary by means of providing a variety of services, such as user credentials’ privacy, session key security (we call it as SK-security), mutual authentication, and user revocation facility when a user’s credentials are unexpectedly revealed. Thus, understanding the security failures of authentication schemes is a key for both patching to the existing schemes and designing the future schemes. Recently, Li et al. showed security drawbacks of Chen et al.’s scheme and proposed an improvement. Later, Islam identified various security flaws in Li et al.’s scheme and proposed further enhancement to remedy these flaws. However, in this paper, we show that Islam’s enhancement has still some security pitfalls. In addition, all these schemes suffer from the time-synchronization problem. We then present a more secure and robust remote user authenticated key agreement scheme in order to remedy the security flaws found in Islam’s scheme. Through the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows–Abadi–Needham logic (BAN logic), we show that our scheme provides secure mutual authentication. Furthermore, the formal and informal security analysis show that our scheme is secure against various known attacks including the offline password guessing attack when smart card of a user is lost/stolen, and our scheme also provides SK-security, user anonymity, and avoids the time-synchronization problem. We further simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted and widely-used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme is safe. Thus, our scheme provides high security along with more functionality features as compared to Li et al.’s scheme and Islam’s scheme. As a result, our scheme is very suitable for practical applications.


SK-security Credential privacy Secure mutual authentication Key establishment BAN logic Security 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MathematicsIndian Institute of TechnologyKharagpurIndia
  2. 2.Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic ResearchInternational Institute of Information TechnologyHyderabadIndia

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