Connectivity Based Energy Efficient Opportunistic Robust Routing for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
- 229 Downloads
Mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs) consist of many sensor nodes that are randomly distributed in the environment to gather information. In MWSNs the transmission path is affected due to node mobility and node failures. Routing protocols in MWSNs must adjust to topology changes and should determine the path with minimum overheads. Dynamic nature of opportunistic routing strategy is observed to be more suitable for MWSNs. In this paper, a connectivity based energy efficient opportunistic robust (CBEEOR) routing protocol is designed and implemented for MWSNs. CBEEOR design involves algebraic connectivity, prioritized forwarder list for selecting relay node for data forwarding. A back-off time mechanism is implemented to seek cooperation of neighbourhood nodes for forwarding the packets in case the node on the existing path becomes unavailable or fails. This mechanism also ensures coordination among neighbouring nodes. The performance of CBEEOR is compared with both energy efficient opportunistic routing (EEOR) and optimal opportunistic forwarding (OOF), it is observed that CBEEOR fares by 25 and 6 % compared to EEOR and OOF respectively for energy efficiency. CBEEOR also shows better performance for packet delivery, network overheads and end-to-end delay compared to EEOR as well as OOF, making it also suitable for MWSNs with intermittent connectivity.
KeywordsNetwork connectivity Opportunistic routing Robustness MWSNs
This work is supported through a research grant from Rajiv Gandhi Science and Technology Commission (RGSTC), Government of Maharashtra, India for research project to establish a system for monitoring air quality for vehicular pollutant using wireless sensor networks. The authors are thankful for the support extended by RGSTC, Government of Maharashtra.
- 1.Wang, G., Wang, T., Jia, W., Guo, M., Chen, H., & Guizani, M. (2007). Local update-based routing protocol in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks. In Proceedings of IEEE international conference on communications, ICC’07 (pp. 3094–3099).Google Scholar
- 2.Rezaei, Z., & Torkestani, J. A. (2012). An energy-efficient MCDS-based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks: Learning automata approach. Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review), 11, 147–151.Google Scholar
- 3.Okazaki, A. M., & Frohlich, A. A. (2011). Ant-based dynamic hop optimization protocol: A routing algorithm for mobile wireless sensor networks. IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, 2011, 1179–1183.Google Scholar
- 6.Akkaya, K., & Younis, M. (2004). Energy-aware routing to a mobile gateway in wireless sensor networks. IEEE global telecommunications conference workshops, 2004. GlobeCom Workshops 2004 (pp. 16–21).Google Scholar
- 9.Biswas, S., & Morris, R. (2005). Opportunistic routing in multi-hop wireless networks, In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM computer communication review, v. 34 n.1, doi: 10.1145/972374.972387.
- 15.Madani, S., Weber, D., & Mahlknecht, S. (2010). Position-based routing protocol for low power wireless sensor networks. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 16(9), 1215–1233.Google Scholar
- 17.Wenning, B., Lukosius, A., Timm-giel, A., Gorg, C., & Tomic, S. (2008). Opportunistic distance-aware routing in multi-sink mobile wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of ICT mobilesummit 2008.Google Scholar
- 18.Karyakarte, M. S., Tavildar, A. S., & Khanna, R. (2015). Connectivity-based cross-layer opportunistic forwarding for MWSNs. Taylor and Francis IETE Journal of Research. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03772063.2015.1021388.
- 23.Network Simulator 2 (NS2). http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns.