Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Anti-jamming Frequency Hopping System Using Multiple Hopping Patterns

  • 354 Accesses

  • 9 Citations


This paper deals with the follower jamming (FJ) and partial-band jamming (PBJ) resistance for the frequency hopping (FH) communication system with low hopping rate over AWGN channel. To gain a comprehensive FJ and PBJ rejection capability, we propose a multi-pattern frequency hopping (MPFH) scheme. In MPFH, the data channel and complementary channel are hopped on separate frequency slots determined by their respective frequency patterns, which will lure the follower jammer out of aiming at the complementary channel, thus mitigating the effect of FJ. Besides, narrow-band receiver is employed to ensure its PBJ rejection capability. We further enhance the proposed scheme by employing convolutional coding and maximum-likelihood decoding. Its upper bounds on bit error rate (BER) are derived under FJ and PBJ, respectively. Effects of three FJ parameters (tracking success probability, jamming duration ratio and jamming bandwidth ratio) and one PBJ parameter (jamming bandwidth ratio) on BER performance of MPFH are investigated versus the conventional FH/BFSK and recently developed differential frequency hopping (DFH) system. Numerical and simulation results show that when under the worst-case FJ, the proposed MPFH performs as well as DFH, but outperforms the conventional FH/BFSK by more than 5 dB; on the other hand, when under worst-case PBJ, the MPFH has the similar BER performance as conventional FH/BFSK, but outperforms DFH by more than 5 dB. The proposed MPFH shows superior jamming rejection performance under both PBJ and FJ.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Lee, J. S., French, R. H., & Miller, L. E. (1988). Error-correcting codes and nonlinear diversity combining against worst case partial-band noise jamming of frequency-hopping MFSK systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 36(4), 471–478.

  2. 2.

    Felstead, E. B. (1998). Follower jammer considerations for frequency hopped spread spectrum. In Proceedings of the IEEE military communications conference (Vol. 2, pp. 474–478). Boston, USA.

  3. 3.

    Lee, C., Jeong, U., Ryoo, J. Y., & Lee, K. (2006). Performance of follower noise jammers considering practical tracking parameters. In Proceedings of the IEEE 64th vehicular technology conference VCT-2006 fall (pp. 1–5). Montreal, Canada.

  4. 4.

    Poisel, R. A. (2006). Modern communications jamming principles and techniques. Norwood: Artech House.

  5. 5.

    Simon, M. K., Omura, J. K., Scholtz, R. A., & Levitt, B. K. (2001). Spread spectrum communications handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  6. 6.

    Ko, C. C., Nguyen-Le, H., & Huang, L. (2008). ML-based follower jamming rejection in slow FH/MFSK systems with an antenna array. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 56(9), 1536–1544.

  7. 7.

    Eken, F. (1991). Use of antenna nulling with frequency-hopping against the follower jammer. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 39(9), 1391–1397.

  8. 8.

    Liu, F., Nguyen-Le, H., & Ko, C. C. (2008). Vector similarity-based detection scheme for multi-antenna FH/MFSK systems in the presence of follower jamming. IET Signal Processing, 2(4), 346–353.

  9. 9.

    Wang, Y., & Wu, G. (2009). Covariance-based follower jamming blocking algorithm for slow FH-BFSK systems. In Proceedings of the Asian-Pacific conference on communications APCC 2009 (pp. 148–152). Shanghai, China.

  10. 10.

    Hassan, A. A., Stark, W. E., & Hershey, J. E. (1996). Error rate for optimal follower tone-jamming. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 44(5), 546–548.

  11. 11.

    Herrick, D. L., & Lee, P. K. (1996). CHESS a new reliable high speed HF radio. In Proceedings of the IEEE military communications conference (Vol. 3, pp. 684–690). McLean, USA.

  12. 12.

    DARPA & ARFL. (2001). CHESS study final report. DARPA and ARFL technical report.

  13. 13.

    Zhu, Y., Gan, L., Lin, J., & Xiong, J. (2006). Performance of differential frequency hopping systems in a fading channel with partial-band noise jamming. In Proceedings of the international conference on wireless communications, networking and mobile computing WiCOM 2006 (pp. 1–4). Wuhan, China.

  14. 14.

    Luo, J., Qu, X., & Wang, S. (2010). Error probabilities of differential frequency hopping receiver with noise-normalization combining sequence detection under partial-band jamming. In Proceedings of the international conference on wireless communications and signal processing WCSP 2010 (pp. 1–4). Suzhou, China.

  15. 15.

    Su, Y. T., & Chang, R. C. (1994). Performance of fast FH/MFSK signals in jammed binary channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 42(7), 2414–2422.

  16. 16.

    Viterbi, A. J. (1971). Convolutional codes and their performance in communication systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications Technology, com–19(5), 751–772.

  17. 17.

    Teh, K. C., Kot, A. C., & Li, K. H. (1999). Performance study of a maximum-likelihood receiver for FFH/BFSK systems with multitone jamming. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 47(5), 766–772.

  18. 18.

    Chiani, M. (1999). Integral representation and bounds for Marcum Q-function. Electronics Letters, 35(6), 445–446.

  19. 19.

    Proakis, J. G. (2000). Digital communications. New York: McGraw-Hill.

  20. 20.

    Chen, Z., Li, S., & Dong B. (2006). Performance of differential frequency hopping system under multitone jamming. In Proceedings of the Asian-Pacific conference on communications APCC 2006 (pp. 1–5). Busan, South Korea.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Huan Zhao.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Quan, H., Zhao, H. & Cui, P. Anti-jamming Frequency Hopping System Using Multiple Hopping Patterns. Wireless Pers Commun 81, 1159–1176 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-014-2177-1

Download citation


  • Frequency hopping
  • Multi-pattern frequency hopping
  • Follower jamming
  • Partial-band jamming
  • Convolutional code