In the paper, we develop an efficient proactive spectrum handover mechanism by using packet scheduling algorithm, called PSHO-HF-PM, to reduce unusable channel. It effectively integrates several mechanisms (hole filling and packet migration) to reduce the bandwidth fragment and support QoS. Its basic idea is in that a new packet is scheduled by migrating some packets to other channels if none of holes in any channels can accommodate it; otherwise repeating the above processes after random waiting time. Meanwhile under an effective data structure, such as the balanced binary search tree, its computational complexity will be \(O(2n\log n)\) at most. In the proposed packet scheduling algorithm, packet migration plays a key role in the improvement of bandwidth efficiency and QoS. We also evaluate the performance of total service time for proactive spectrum handover mechanism based on a Preemptive Resume Priority M/G/1 queuing network model. The performance analysis and simulation results show that it performs much better than other proactive and reactive handover mechanism in collision rate, total service time, packet loss probability and bandwidth fragment ratio.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Xianzhong, X., & Guang, Y., et al. (Oct. 2011). Spectrum handoff decision algorithm with dynamic weights in cognitive radio networks. In GMC 2011 (pp. 1–6).
Xianzhong, X., Bo, R., et al. (2011). Improving physical layer multicast by cooperative communications in heterogeneous networks. IEEE Wireless Communications, 18(3), 58–63.
Zhang, Y. (June 2009). Spectrum handoff in cognitive radio networks: Opportunistic and negotiated situations. In IEEE ICC 2009 (pp. 1–6).
Qu, D., Ding, J., Jiang, T., & Sun, X. (2011). Detection of non-contiguous OFDM symbols for cognitive radio systems without out-of-band spectrum synchronization. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 10(2), 693–701.
Song, C., & Zhang, Q. (2010). Intelligent dynamic spectrum access assisted by channel usage prediction. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010, 1–6.
Wang, L., Wang, C., et al. (2012). Modeling and analysis for spectrum handoffs in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11(9), 1499–1513.
Song, Y., & Xie, J. (2012). ProSpect: A proactive spectrum handoff framework for cognitive radio ad hoc networks without common control channel. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 11(7), 1127–1139.
Zhao, Q., Tong, L., Swami, A., & Chen, Y. (2011). Decentralized cognitive MAC for opportunistic spectrum access in ad hoc networks: A POMDP framework. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 25(3), 589–600.
Yang, L., Cao, L., & Zheng, H. (2008). Proactive channel access in dynamic spectrum networks. Physical Communication (Elsevier), 1(2), 103–111.
Yarkan, S., & Arslan, H. (2007). Binary time series approach to spectrum prediction for cognitive radio. IEEE VTC, 2007, 1563–1567.
Huang, S., Liu, X., & Ding, Z. (2009). Optimal transmission strategies for dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 8(12), 1636–1648.
Yoon, S.-U., & Ekici, E. ( 2010). Voluntary spectrum handoff: A novel approach to spectrum management in CRNs. In IEEE ICC (pp. 256–261).
Rashid, M., Hossain, M., et al. (2011). Opportunistic spectrum scheduling for multiuser cognitive radio: a queuing analysis. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 8(10), 5259–5269.
Choi, B. D., & Hwang, G. U. (1997). The MAP, M/G1, G2/1 queue with preemptive priority. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Stochastic Analysis, 10(4), 407–421.
Bose, S. K. (Ed.). (2002). Introduction to queuing systems. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61271259, 61301123, the Science & Technology Research Program of the Municipal Education Commission of Chongqing of China under Grant No. KJ130536, and the Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing of China under Grant No. CSTC2014jcyjA1016, and the Foundation of Chongqing Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Communication Technology of China under Grant No. CY-CNCL-2010-02.
About this article
Cite this article
Ma, B., Xie, X. & Liao, X. PSHO-HF-PM: An Efficient Proactive Spectrum Handover Mechanism in Cognitive Radio Networks. Wireless Pers Commun 79, 1679–1701 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-014-1952-3
- Cognitive radio networks
- Spectrum handover
- Packet scheduling