Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The Effects of Physical Layer on the Routing Wireless Protocol

Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are characterized by multiple entities, a frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. In MANETs, nodes are usually powered by batteries. Power control is tightly coupled with both the physical and medium access layers (MACs). However, if we increase the transmission power, at the same time we increase the interference to other nodes which diminish the transport capacity of wireless systems. Thus, the routing protocols based on hop count metric suffer from performance degradation when they operate over MANET. Routing in ad hoc wireless networks is not only a problem of finding a route with shortest length, but it is also a problem of finding a stable and good quality communication route in order to avoid any unnecessary packet loss. Cross-layer design of ad hoc wireless networks has been receiving increasing attention recently. Part of these researches suggests that routing should take into account physical layer characteristics. The goal of this paper is to improve the routing reliability in MANET and to reduce power consumption through cross-layer approach among physical, MAC and network layers. The proposed cross-layer approach is based on signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and received signal strength indication (RSSI) coming from the physical layer. This solution performs in one hand the ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol by choosing reliable routes with less interferences using SINR metric and in another hand; it permits to reduce the power transmission when sending the data packets by using RSSI metric.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. 1.

    Murthy, C., & Manoj, B. S. (2004). Ad hoc wireless networks: architectures and protocols, chapter ad hoc wireless networks. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

  2. 2.

    Akyildiz, I. F., Wang, X., & Wang, W. (2005). Wireless mesh networks: A survey. Computer Network ISDN System, 47, 445–487.

  3. 3.

    Braun, T., Kassler, A., Kihl, M., Rakocevic, V., Siris, V., & Heijenk, G., (2009). Multihop wireless networks. In Traffic and QoS management in wireless multimedia networks, 31 of lecture notes in electrical engineering (pp. 201–265). US: Springer.

  4. 4.

    IEEE 802.11-2007. (2007). Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications.

  5. 5.

    Rappaport, T. S., et al. (2002). Wireless communication: Past event and future perspective. IEEE Communication Magazine, 40(5), 148–161.

  6. 6.

    Clausen, T., & Jacquet, P. (2003). Optimized link state routing protocol (OLSR), request for comments: 3626.

  7. 7.

    Perkins, C. (1994). Highly dynamic destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers. In Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM’94 conference on communications architectures, protocols and applications.

  8. 8.

    Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, E., & Das, S. (2003). Ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, request for comments: 3561.

  9. 9.

    Yoo, T., Setton, E., Zhu, X., Goldsmith, A., & Girod, B. (2004). Cross-layer design for video streaming over wireless ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of MMPS 2004 (pp. 28–35). Italy: Siena.

  10. 10.

    Ferrari, G., Malvassori, S., Bragalini, M., & Tonguz, O. (2005). Physical layer constrained routing in ad-hoc wireless networks: A modified Aodv protocol with power control. In Proceedings of IWWAN 2005. UK: London.

  11. 11.

    Ferrari, G., Malvassori, S. A., & Tonguz, O. K. (2008). On physical layer-oriented routing with power control in ad hoc wireless networks. IET Communications, 2(2), 306–319.

  12. 12.

    Boumedjout, A., & Zoulikha, M. M. (2009). Routing technique with cross-layer approach in ad hoc network. In Proceedings of IEEE conference on applications of digital information and web technologies, ICADIWT ’09. Second international conference (pp. 313–318).

  13. 13.

    Negi, R., & Rajeswaran, A. (2003). Physical layer effect on mac performance in ad-hoc wireless networks. In Proceedings of communication, internet and information technoogy.

  14. 14.

    Zhang, J., Tan, K., Zhao, J., Wu, H., & Zhang, Y. (2008). A practical SNR-Guided rate adaptation. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM conference (pp. 2083–2091). Phoenix, AZ.

  15. 15.

    Subramanian, A. P., Buddhikot, M. M., & Miller, S. (2006). Interference aware routing in multi-radio wireless mesh networks In 2nd IEEE workshop on wireless mesh networks, 2006. WiMesh 2006 (pp. 55–63).

  16. 16.

    Li, X., & Bao-Yu, Z. (2003). Study on cross-layer design and power conservation in ad hoc network. In Parallel and distributed computing, applications and technologies, PDCAT (pp. 324–328).

  17. 17.

    Romdhani, L., & Bonnet, C. (2005). A cross-layer stability based on-demand routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. In IWWAN. London, UK.

  18. 18.

    Ramachandran, B., & Shanmugavel, S. (2008). Received signal strength-based cross-layer designs for mobile ad hoc networks. IETE Technical Review. Published by Medknow, 25(4), 192–200.

  19. 19.

    Boumedjout, A., & Mekkakia, Z. M. (2010). The impact of cross-layer designs on routing ad hoc protocols. International Review on Computers and Software (IRECOS), 5(1), 84–88.

  20. 20.

    Rappaport, T. S. (1996). Wireless communications, principles and practice (pp. 104–105). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  21. 21.

    Belbachir, R., Zoulikha, Mekkakia M., & Kies, A. (2012). The mobility issue in admission controls and available bandwidth measures in MaNets. Wireless Personal Communications, Springer. doi:10.1007/s11277-012-0718-z.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Mekkakia Maaza Zoulikha.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Amel, B., Zoulikha, M.M. The Effects of Physical Layer on the Routing Wireless Protocol. Wireless Pers Commun 77, 749–765 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-013-1534-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • MANET
  • Cross-layer design
  • Aodv routing protocol
  • SINR
  • RSSI