Wireless Personal Communications

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 1809–1826 | Cite as

A Novel Verification Scheme for Fine-Grained Top-k Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

  • Xingpo Ma
  • Hong SongEmail author
  • Jianxin WangEmail author
  • Jianliang Gao
  • Geyong Min


A two-tiered architecture with resource-rich master nodes at the upper tier and resource-poor sensor nodes at the lower tier is expected to be adopted in large scale sensor networks. In a hostile environment, adversaries are more motivated to compromise the master nodes to break the authenticity and completeness of query results, whereas it is lack of light and secure query processing protocol in tiered sensor networks at present. In this paper, we study the problem of verifiable fine-grained top-\(k\) queries in two-tiered sensor networks, and propose a novel verification scheme, which is named Verification Scheme for Fine-grained Top-\(k\) Queries (VSFTQ). To make top-\(k\) query results verifiable, VSFTQ establishes relationships among data items of each sensor node using their orders, which are encrypted together with the scores of the data items and the interested time epoch number using distinct symmetric keys kept by each sensor node and the network owner. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that VSFTQ can not only ensure high probability of detecting forged and/or incomplete query results, but also significantly decrease the amount of verification information when compared with existing schemes.


Top-\(k\) queries Two-tiered sensor network Verification Symmetric key 



This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61232001, 61173169, 61106036).


  1. 1.
    Zhang, R., Shi, J., Liu, Y., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Verifiable fine-grained top-k queries in tiered sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM’10, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sheng, B., & Li, Q. (2011). Verifiable privacy-preserving sensor network storage for range query. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 10(9), pp. 1312–1326.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shi, J., Zhang, R., & Zhang, Y. (2009). Secure range queries in tiered sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM’09, Rio De, Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 945–953.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang, R., Shi, J., & Zhang, Y. (2009). Secure multidimensional range queries in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the MobiHoc’09, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, pp. 197–206.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, F., & Liu, A. (2010). SafeQ: Secure and efficient query processing in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM’10, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 1–9.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang, S., Mao, X., & Li, X. (2011). Efficient and fast distributed top-k query protocol in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the ICNP’11, Vancouver, BC Canada, pp. 99–108.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mo, S. F., Chen, H., & Lee, Y. L. (2011). Clustering-based routing for top-k querying in wireless sensor networks. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2011(1), Article No. 73.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mai, H. T., Lee, Y. W., Lee, K. Y., & Kim, M. H. (2011). Distributed adaptive top-\(k\) monitoring in wireless sensor networks. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(2), pp. 314–327.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malhotra, B., Nascimento, M. A., & Nikolaidis, I. (2011). Exact top-\(k\) queries in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 23(10), pp. 1513–1525.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bi, R., Li, J., & Cheng, S. (2011). Approximate top-k query processing algorithm in wireless sensor networks. Journal on Communications, 32(8), pp. 45–54.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jiang, H. B., Cheng, J., Wang, D., Wang, C. G., & Tan, G. (2011). Continuous multi-dimensional top-\(k\) query processing in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IEEE INFOCOM’11, Shanghai, China, pp. 793–801.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheng, J., Jiang, H., Liu, J., Liu, W., & Wang, C. (2011). On efficient processing of continuous historical top-\(k\) queries in sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular technology, 60(5), pp. 2363–2367.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hore, B., Mehrotra, S., & Tsudik, G. (2004). A privacy-preserving index for range queries. In In Proceedings of the VLDB’04, Toronto, Canada, pp. 720–731.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu, C. M., Tsou, Y. T., Lu, C. S., & Kuo, S. Y. (2011). Practical and secure multidimensional query framework in tiered sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Information Forencics and Security, 6(2), pp. 241–255.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Agrawal, R., Kiernan, J., Srikant, R., & Xu, Y. (2004). Order-preserving encryption for numeric data. In Proceedings of the SIGMODE’04, Maison de la Chimie, Paris, France, pp. 563–574.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fan, Y., & chen, H. (2012). Verifiable privacy-preserving top-\(k\) query protocol in two-tiered sensor networks. Chinese Journal of Computers, 3, pp. 423–433.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liao, X. J., & Li, J. Z. (2012). Privacy-preserving and Secure Top-k query in two-tier wireless sensor network. In Proceedings of the GLOBECOM’12, Anaheim, CA, USA, pp. 335–341.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yao, Y., Ma, L., & Liu, J. (2012). Privacy-preserving top-\(K\) query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. International Journal of Advancements in Computing Technology, 4(6), pp. 226–232.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Seshadri, A., Perrig, A., van Doorn, L., & Khosla, P. K. (2004). SWATT: Software-based attestation for embedded devices. In Proceedings of the IEEE S &P’04, CA, USA, pp. 272–282.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cao, Z., Deng, H., Guan, Z., & Chen, Z. (2012). Information-theoretic modeling of false data filtering schemes in wireless sensor networks. ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), 8(2), Article No. 14.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu, Z., Wang, J., & Zhang, X. (2011). A false data filtering scheme using cluster-based organization in sensor networks. In Proceedings of the ICC’11, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 1–5.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lu, R. X., Lin, X. D., Zhu, H. J., Liang, X. H., & Shen, X. M. (2012). Statistical en-route BECAN: A bandwidth-efficient cooperative authentication scheme for filtering injected false data in wireless sensor networks. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 23(1), pp. 32–43.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu, A., & Ning, P. (2008). TinyECC: A configurable library for elliptic curve cryptography in wireless sensor networks. In Proceedings of the IPSN’08, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 245–256.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Information Science and EngineeringCentral South UniversityChangsha China
  2. 2.Department of ComputingUniversity of BradfordBradfordUK

Personalised recommendations