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A Statistical Model for the Influence of Body Dynamics on the Gain Pattern of Wearable Antennas in Off-Body Radio Channels

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Abstract

The goal of this paper is to address a statistical approach for modelling the influence of body dynamics on the gain pattern of wearable antennas in Body Area Networks, particularly in off-body radio channels. A dynamic model was developed based on Motion Capture data, describing a realistic human body movement. Antennas are located on 4 typical positions (i.e., Head, Chest, Arm and Leg), for which statistics of antenna orientation (i.e., average and standard deviation of elevation and azimuth angles) were calculated for 2 dynamic scenarios, i.e., Walk and Run. Based on the rotation of the antenna, the statistics of gain patterns of a wearable patch antenna operating at 2.45 GHz were calculated. The standard deviation of the change in the antenna orientation is the highest for the Arm location, reaching \(19^{\circ }\) and \(37^{\circ }\) for the Run scenario, for elevation and azimuth angles, respectively. For most of the scenarios, the distribution of the change in antenna orientation fits well to a Kumaraswamy distribution (using the \(\chi ^2_{95\,\%}\) test). For all antenna positions and the Walk scenario, the standard deviation is \(<4^{\circ }\).

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Acknowledgments

This work was partially funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia under Grant SFRH/BD/46378/2008.

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Correspondence to Michal Mackowiak.

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Mackowiak, M., Correia, L.M. A Statistical Model for the Influence of Body Dynamics on the Gain Pattern of Wearable Antennas in Off-Body Radio Channels. Wireless Pers Commun 73, 381–399 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-013-1193-x

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Keywords

  • Body dynamics
  • Body area networks
  • Statistical radiation pattern
  • Channel models