Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems

Abstract

Layered Steered Space–Time Codes (LSSTC) is a recently proposed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system that combines the benefits of vertical Bell Labs space–time (VBLAST) scheme, space–time block codes (STBC) and beamforming. In this paper, we derive the error performance and capacity of a single-user LSSTC system. The analysis is general enough to any layer ordering and modulation schemes used. In addition, the derived analysis is general for any LSSTC structure in which layers may have different number of antenna arrays and may be assigned power according to any power allocation. Furthermore, we analytically investigate the tradeoff between the main parameters of the LSSTC system, i.e., diversity, multiplexing and beamforming. Our results give recursive expressions for the probability of error for LSSTC which showed nearly perfect match to the simulation results. Results have also revealed the possibility of designing an adaptive system in which it was shown that combining beamforming, STBC, and VBLAST has better performance than VBLAST at high SNR range.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    Wolniansky, P. W., Foschini, G. J., Golden, G. D., & Valenzuela, R. A. (1998, October). V-BLAST: An architecture for realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel. In URSI international symposium on signals, systems and electronics, pp. 295–300.

  2. 2.

    Alamouti, S. (1998). A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 16(8), 1451–1458.

  3. 3.

    Tarokh, V., Naguib, A., Seshadri, N., & Calderbank, A. (1999). Combined array processing and space-time coding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 45(4), 1121–1128.

  4. 4.

    Mohammad, M., Al-Ghadhban, S., Woerner, B., Tranter, W. (2004) Comparing decoding algorithms for multi-layered space-time block codes. In IEEE SoutheastCon proceedings, pp. 147–152.

  5. 5.

    Chong, J. H., Khatun, S., Noordin, N. K., Ali, B. M., Syed, M. J. (2008) Joint optimal detection of ordering SIC ZF and SIC ZF MAP for V-BLAST/STBC wireless communication systems. In ENICS ’08: Proceedings of the international conference on advances in electronics and micro-electronics, pp. 84–89.

  6. 6.

    El-Hajjar, M., Hanzo, L. (2007) Layered steered space-time codes and their capacity. IEE Electronics Letters, 43, 680–682.

  7. 7.

    Shen, C., Zhu, Y., Zhou, S., & Jiang, J. (2004) On the performance of V-BLAST with zero-forcing successive interference cancellation receiver. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2818–2822.

  8. 8.

    Loyka, S., & Gagnon, F. (2004). On BER analysis of the BLAST without optimal ordering over Rayleigh fading channel. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2, 1473–1477.

  9. 9.

    Shu, F., Lihua, L., Xiaofeng, T., & Ping, Z. (2007) A spatial multiplexing MIMO scheme with beamforming for downlink transmission. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 700–704.

  10. 10.

    Tao, M., & Cheng, R. (2001). Low complexity post-ordered iterative decoding for generalized layered space-time coding systems. IEEE International Conference on Communications, 4, 1137–1141.

  11. 11.

    Salim, A. (2010). Performance of layered steered space-time codes in wireless systems, Master’s thesis.

  12. 12.

    Al-Ghadhban, S. (2005). Multi-layered space frequency Time Codes. Ph.D. dissertation. Virginia, USA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

  13. 13.

    Proakis, J. (2000). Digital communications (4th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

  14. 14.

    Al-Shalan, F. (2000). Performance of quadrature amplitude modulation in Nakagami fading channels with diversity, Ph.D. dissertation. Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals.

  15. 15.

    Sandhu, S., & Paulraj, A. (2000). Space-time block codes: A capacity perspective. IEEE Communications Letters, 4(12), 384–386.

  16. 16.

    Al-Ghadhban, S., Buehrer, R., & Woerner, B. (2005) Outage capacity comparison of multi-layered STBC and V-BLAST systems. In IEEE 62nd vehicular technology conference, pp. 1:24–27.

  17. 17.

    Zheng, L., & Tse, D. N. C. (2003). Diversity and multiplexing: A fundamental tradeoff in multiple-antenna channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 49(5), 1073–1096.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) under grant no. SB070005 and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the Science and Technology Unit at KFUPM for funding this work through project number 08-ELE39-4 as part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan.

Author information

Correspondence to Ahmad S. Salim.

Additional information

The material in this paper was presented in part at the Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) conference, Istanbul, Turkey, September 2010. In that work we have presented some of the results we had on the performance of LSSTC without giving much detail on their derivations, on the other hand, this paper gives the complete derivations of the error performance results and includes extensive comparisons between the analytical and the simulation results for the error performance, capacity and the VBLAST–LSSTC adaptive system. Another part of this paper was presented in part at the International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems (WINSYS), Athens, Greece, July 2010. That work included some of the results on the capacity of an LSSTC system and how it outperforms VBLAST.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Salim, A.S., Zummo, S.A. & Al-Ghadhban, S.N. Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems. Wireless Pers Commun 72, 1827–1845 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-013-1098-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Layered Steered Space–Time Codes
  • LSSTC
  • STBC
  • VBLAST
  • Beamforming
  • Capacity
  • Probability of error
  • Tradeoff