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Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems


Layered Steered Space–Time Codes (LSSTC) is a recently proposed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system that combines the benefits of vertical Bell Labs space–time (VBLAST) scheme, space–time block codes (STBC) and beamforming. In this paper, we derive the error performance and capacity of a single-user LSSTC system. The analysis is general enough to any layer ordering and modulation schemes used. In addition, the derived analysis is general for any LSSTC structure in which layers may have different number of antenna arrays and may be assigned power according to any power allocation. Furthermore, we analytically investigate the tradeoff between the main parameters of the LSSTC system, i.e., diversity, multiplexing and beamforming. Our results give recursive expressions for the probability of error for LSSTC which showed nearly perfect match to the simulation results. Results have also revealed the possibility of designing an adaptive system in which it was shown that combining beamforming, STBC, and VBLAST has better performance than VBLAST at high SNR range.

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The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) under grant no. SB070005 and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the Science and Technology Unit at KFUPM for funding this work through project number 08-ELE39-4 as part of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan.

Author information

Correspondence to Ahmad S. Salim.

Additional information

The material in this paper was presented in part at the Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) conference, Istanbul, Turkey, September 2010. In that work we have presented some of the results we had on the performance of LSSTC without giving much detail on their derivations, on the other hand, this paper gives the complete derivations of the error performance results and includes extensive comparisons between the analytical and the simulation results for the error performance, capacity and the VBLAST–LSSTC adaptive system. Another part of this paper was presented in part at the International Conference on Wireless Information Networks and Systems (WINSYS), Athens, Greece, July 2010. That work included some of the results on the capacity of an LSSTC system and how it outperforms VBLAST.

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Salim, A.S., Zummo, S.A. & Al-Ghadhban, S.N. Performance of Layered Steered Space–Time Codes in Wireless Systems. Wireless Pers Commun 72, 1827–1845 (2013).

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  • Layered Steered Space–Time Codes
  • STBC
  • Beamforming
  • Capacity
  • Probability of error
  • Tradeoff