Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Packet Delay in UAV Wireless Networks Under Non-saturated Traffic and Channel Fading Conditions

  • 579 Accesses

  • 6 Citations

Abstract

In this paper, we conduct a statistical analysis for the packet delay in a wireless network of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under non-saturated traffic and channel fading conditions. Each UAV runs the distributed coordination function of IEEE 802.11 at the medium access control layer, and all UAVs are one-hop neighbors. A pair of UAVs can communicate over the lossy wireless channel of a fixed data rate. A non-saturated traffic condition is used. By modeling each node UAV as a standard queueing system (i.e., \(M/M/1\) or \(M/G/1\) queue), we derive the mean packet delay under the non-saturated traffic condition. Numerical and simulation results show that the mean packet delay derived based on \(M/M/1\) queue is accurate for UAV wireless networks under the non-saturated traffic condition and with an independent packet error rate. It is observed that the mean packet delay increases with either the number of UAVs in the network or the packet generation rate. More important, existing results in the literature, based on the saturated traffic condition (i.e., packets are always supplied for transmission), tend to overestimate by a large amount the mean packet delay for networks with non-saturated traffic. In the second part of this paper, we apply simulation data to analysis of the probability distribution function of the packet delay when the packet error rate equals zero. Using a distribution fitting tool, we observe that the packet delay can be well approximated by the sum of a deterministic delay, which corresponds to the time period during which the UAV senses the medium and is able to perform a successful transmission, and a random delay, which follows a Gamma distribution function.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. 1.

    Baillieul, J., & Antsaklis, P. J. (2007). Control and Communication challenges in networked real-time systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 95(1), 9–28.

  2. 2.

    Beard, R. W., Mclain, T. W., Nelson, D. B., Kingston, D., & Johanson, D. (2006). Decentralized cooperative aerial surveillance using fixed-wing miniature UAVs. Proceedings of the IEEE, 94(7), 1306–1324.

  3. 3.

    Bianchi, G. (2000). Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function. IEEE Journal on Selected Area in Communications, 18(3), 535–547.

  4. 4.

    Brown, T. X., Argrow, B., Dixon, C., Doshi, S., & Nies, P. (2004) . Ad hoc UAV-ground network (AUGNet) test bed. Proceedings of the 4th Scandinavian workshop on wireless ad-hoc networks Stockholm, Sweden.

  5. 5.

    Buehrer, R. M. et al. (2004). Chapter 4: Outdoor measurements. DARPA NETEX final report, source. http://www.mprg.org/people/buehrer/ultra/pdfs/Chapter4.pdf.

  6. 6.

    Casbeer, D. W., Kingston, D. B., Beard, R. W., McLain, T. W., Li, S.-M., & Mehra, R. (2006). Cooperative forest fire surveillance using a team of small unmanned air vehicles. International Journal of Systems Science, 37(6), 351–360.

  7. 7.

    Chatzimisios, P., Boucouvalas, A. C. & Vitsas, V. (2003). IEEE 802.11 packet delay—a finite retry limit analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE global telecommunications conference (Globecom 2003) (pp. 950–954). San Francisco, USA.

  8. 8.

    Christmann, H. C., & Johnson, E. N. (2007). Design and implementation of a self-configuring ad hoc network for unmanned aerial systems. Proceedings of AIAA InfoTech@Aerospace conference (pp. 698–704). Rohnert Park, CA.

  9. 9.

    Deng, D., Chen, H., Chao, H., & Huang, Y. (2011). A collision alleviation scheme for IEEE 802.11p VANETs. Wireless Personal Communications, 56(3), 1–13.

  10. 10.

    Elarbaoui, I., & Refai, H. H. (2008). Enhancement of IEEE 802.11 DCF backoff algorithm under heavy traffic. Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/ACS international conference on computer systems and applications (pp. 1082–1087). Doha, Qatar.

  11. 11.

    Frew, E. W., & Brown, T. X. (2008). Airborne communication networks for small unmanned aircraft systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 96(12), 2008–2027.

  12. 12.

    Frew, E. W., Dixon, C., Elston, J., Argrow, B., & Brown, T. X. (2008). Networked communication, command, and control of an unmanned aircraft system. AIAA Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication, 5(4), 84–107.

  13. 13.

    Frew, E. W., & Brown, T. X. (2009). Networking issues for small unmanned aircraft systems. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, 54(1–3), 21–37.

  14. 14.

    Goldsmith, A. (2005). Wireless communications, Chapter 3. New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

  15. 15.

    Hague, D., Kung, H. T. & Suter, B. (2006). Field experimentation of COTS-based UAV networking. Proceedings of IEEE 2006 military communications conference (MILCOM 2006) (pp. 1–7). Washington, DC, USA.

  16. 16.

    Kang, K., Lin, X., & Hu, H. (2007). An accurate MAC delay model for IEEE 802.11 DCF. Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE international conference on telecommunications and Malaysia international conference on communications (pp. 654–657). Penang, Malaysia.

  17. 17.

    Kim, J. H., & Lee, J. K. (1999). Throughput and packet delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol for wireless LAN’s. Wireless Personal Communications, 11(2), 161–183.

  18. 18.

    Kopp, C. (2008). NCW101: An introduction to network centric warfare, Part 4—Ad Hoc Networking. Air Power Australia.

  19. 19.

    Kumar, S., Raghavan, V. S., & Deng, J. (2006). Medium access control protocols for ad hoc wireless networks: A survey. Ad Hoc Networks, 4(3), 326–358.

  20. 20.

    Leon-Garcia, A. (1993). Probability and random processes for electrical engineering (2nd ed.). USA: Prentice Hall.

  21. 21.

    Loy, M., & Sylla, I., (Eds.) (2005). ISM-band and short range device antennas. Application Report (WRA046A), Texas Instruments.

  22. 22.

    Naimi, A. M. & Jacquet, P. (2004). One-hop delay estimation in 802.11 ad hoc networks using the OLSR protocol. INRIA research report no. 5327.

  23. 23.

    O’Brien, B. J., Baran, D. G. & Luu, B. B. (2006). Ad hoc networking for unmanned ground vehicles: design and evaluation at command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance on-the-move. Army Research Laboratory, Technical, Report, ARL-TR-3991.

  24. 24.

    Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. Unmanned aerial vehicles roadmap 2005–2030.

  25. 25.

    Part 11. (1999). Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications. IEEE Standard 802.11.

  26. 26.

    Rappaport, T. S. (1996). Wireless communication, principles and practice, Chapter 4. New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.

  27. 27.

    Ross, S. M. (2003). Introduction to probability models (8th ed.). Chapter 8. San Diego, USA: Academic Press.

  28. 28.

    Simon, M. K., & Alouini, M.-S. (2000). Digital communication over fading channels: A unified approach to performance analysis Chapter 8. London: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  29. 29.

    Xiao, Y. (2004). Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11e EDCF under saturation condition. Proceedings of IEEE international conference on communications (pp. 170–174). Paris, France.

  30. 30.

    Xu, K., Gerla, M., & Bae, S. (2003). Effectiveness of RTS/CTS handshake in IEEE 802.11 based ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Networks, 1(1), 107–123.

  31. 31.

    Zhai, H., Kwon, Y., & Fang, Y. (2004). Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in wireless LANs. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, 4(8), 917–931.

  32. 32.

    Zhou, Y., Li, J., Lamont, L., & Rabbath, C.-A. (2012, January) Modeling of packet dropout for UAV wireless communications. Proceedings of the international conference on computing, networking and communication (ICNC. (2012) Maui, HI, USA.

  33. 33.

    Ziouva, E., & Antonakopoulos, T. (2002). CSMA/CA performance under high traffic conditions: Throughput and delay analysis. Computer Communications, 25(3), 313–321.

Download references

Acknowledgments

The work reported herein was supported by Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC). The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions, which have helped improve this research.

Author information

Correspondence to Jun Li.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Li, J., Zhou, Y., Lamont, L. et al. Packet Delay in UAV Wireless Networks Under Non-saturated Traffic and Channel Fading Conditions. Wireless Pers Commun 72, 1105–1123 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11277-013-1057-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Networks of unmanned aerial vehicles
  • Medium access control (MAC)
  • IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF)
  • Queueing modeling and performance evaluation
  • Packet delay
  • Non-saturated traffic models
  • Rician fading channel